Limonene takes its name from the lemon peel, but can be found in various fruits and flowers including cannabis. Its popularity stems from being the top 5 terpenes found in cannabis and has proven valuable in various applications.
Limonene exists in two isomeric forms, D-Limonene and L-limonene. Both have different ouders and behave differently. Both forms of Limonene are classified as a monoterpenes, and degrade to produce other terpenes such as carveol, carvone.
D-Limonene has a sweet citrusy cent make it a common edible additive and can be found in many food items .Limonene is common as a dietary supplements known to promote weight loss, prevent cancer and treat bronchitis
L-Limonene has a more piney, lemony, clean, turpentine-like scent. L-Limonene is a popular ingredient in water-free hand soaps as it cleanses and leave the hands smelling fresh.
Limonene scent characteristics makes it popular in perfumery, cosmetic and scented products
In manufacturing, limonene is considered an effective, naturally occurring, biodegradable solvent and degreaser. It is 100% natural, environmentally friendly, non-toxic and renewable product .
Manufacturers Extract it from the skin of citrus fruits by two methods: by spinning liquefied citrus rind (centrifugal separation) or by ‘cooking’ the rind (steam distillation).
Generally Recognized As Safe (GRAS) by the FDA. D-Limonene can be used safely and effectively in a wide range of products and medications.
Limonene itself has low toxicity, which is why it is used so widely in food-grade products. When applied to skin may sometimes cause irritation, but otherwise appears to be safe for human use.
Limonene Dermal Absorption
D-limonene can enhance Skin Absorption. It is evident that D-limonene is important factors for promoting the percutaneous absorption of indomethacin. As a possible mechanism for enhancement action of d-limonene may change the barrier structure of the stratum corneum and can help produce effective dermal drug delivery methods for liniments, lotions, ointments, creams, dusting powders, aerosols, and transdermal patches.
Limone works on the endocannabinoid system and helps regulate cannabinoid uptake by the receptors CB1 and CB2. It is one of the active terpenes in the Entourage Effect
Limonene has demonstrated the ability to reduce inflammation. One way limonene reduces inflammation is through the inhibition of angiogenesis. Angiogenesis is the formation of new blood vessels, which is an inherent component of inflammation. Thus, by inhibiting this process, limonene can help to reduce inflammation and also improve wound healing.
Studies have also shown that limonene have anti-cancer effects. Limonene increase the levels of liver enzymes involved in detoxifying carcinogens. The Glutathione S-transferase (GST) is a system which eliminates carcinogens. In addition, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, antinociceptive, antidiabetic, antihyperalgesic and antiviral properties of limonene have been observed.
New research is uncovering how valuable Limonene is. Like limonene, there are many useful terpenes. Studying the various terpenes give us knowledge that we are eager to spread.
Molar mass: 136.24 g/mol
Density: 841 kg/m³
Boiling point: 176 °C