Tag Archives: Cannabis Research

Creating Medicine from Cannabis

Cannabis’s unique medicinal properties and Active Compounds are widely documented. Cannabinoids interact within the Endocannabinoid System. THC has proven medical benefits in particular formulations. The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has approved THC-based medications, dronabinol and nabilone, prescribed in pill form for nausea and appetite treatment, aiding cancer and AIDS patients.

In addition, several other cannabis -based medications have been approved or are undergoing clinical trials. Nabiximols, a mouth spray that is currently available for treating the spasticity and neuropathic pain that may accompany multiple sclerosis, combines THC with CBD.

The FDA also approved a CBD-based liquid medication called Epidiolex® for the treatment of severe childhood epilepsy, specifically, Dravet syndrome and Lennox-Gastaut syndrome. The medication is being delivered with reliable dosage and reproducible route.

Cannabis posses nitrogenous compounds, amino acids, proteins, glycoproteins, enzymes, sugars and related compounds, hydrocarbons, alcohols, acids, esters, aldehydes, ketones, fatty acids, lactones, steroids, terpenes, non-cannabinoid phenols, flavonoids, vitamins and pigments already used in Botanical Medicine and are yet to be empirically proven and peer reviewed. While some of these compounds are found in other Botanical Sources, it is likely that there are unique combinations found only in cannabis.

As we study this remarkable plant further, more constituents are showing promise for new and revolutionary Drug Delivery systems and Antibacterial Activities

Clearly, more research is needed from the scientific community to produce appropriate, safe utilization of cannabis. However, the FDA does not recognize the use of medical applications of cannabis. There is no reason to regulate cannabis derived medicine any different than general recommendations on studying botanicals.

Convoluted regulation of cannabis makes funding for research lacking. Independent Cannabis research cannot be done by companies as they are hindered from scaling and acquiring credit. In addition, concerns over conflicts of interest as seen with traditional drug company-sponsored studies.

In order to unlock cannabis potential cannabis possession should be deregulated so academic institutions can dedicate lab time for cannabis research.

Digital Channels need to be more lenient to discussion and allow ideas to spread and be refined. Unjustified resistance to cannabis for medical and recreational use has to be discarded. It is time regulative, communication and banking systems reform their attitude towards cannabis. As a global community we have proved that we can work fast if necessary. If you are interested in sharing cannabis related ideas or identify potential collaborations feel free to contact us privately.

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Cannabis Mechanisms for Weight-loss

Studies show that cannabis users seem to have lower BMI than control groups. There is more research to be done but there are several reasons for weight loss with cannabis use.

The Endocannabinoid System plays a vital role in homeostasis by signaling receptors found in the central nervous system and vital organs. The CB1 Receptor is a primary mediator of energy storage, conservation, uptake and general homeostasis. CB1 antagonists are effective not only in reducing body weight, but also in improving the associated Insulin Resistance Conditions

Some Cannabinoids are high-affinity CB1 receptor ligands and potent antagonists. It is important to remember that the cannabinoid affinity is directly affected by Terpenes. Terpenes, cannabinoids and other Cannabis Compounds alter the function of cannabinoid receptors which finetune metabolic functions.

The ratio of competing substrates, Omega-3 to Omega-6 fatty acid within the blood affect the endocannabinoid system and determines N-arachidonoylethanolamide (AEA/anandamide) and 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG) production. When there is too much omega-6 fatty acid, it gets converted to increased AEA and 2-AG, stimulating CB1 and promoting weight gain. 

Omega-3 fatty acids are common as dietary supplements due to their apparent ability to reduce obesity, inflammation by leading to reduced AEA and 2-AG levels and CB1 activity.

Generally, THC results in downregulation of CB1, leading to reduced sensitivity to AEA and 2-AG. It is apparent that long-lasting downregulation of CB1 following cannabis consumption reduces energy storage and increases metabolic rates, thus causing weight reduction of elevated dietary omega-6/omega-3 ratios. 

While adequate research is still required, some hypothesis that CBD is a contributor to weight-loss. CBD does not directly deactivate CB1 receptors, but may influence the production of antagonists to dampen its biological response. Altering affinity of cannabinoid receptors may help reduce appetite, make healthier food more appealing, and regulate metabolic rate.

Certain terpenes possess an anorectic quality. Limonene and Humulene are anti-inflammatory and are commonly used to promote weight loss.

Cannabis strain related weight-loss may occur from behavioral changes associated with cannabis consumption rather than cannabinoid stimulation. 

Pain relieving properties of cannabis allow for more physical activity. These properties are also thought to shorten recovery time between workouts allowing for a more strenuous workout regiment.

Cannabis stimulates the dopamine receptors in the brain responsible for mood. Cannabis users often substitute cannabinoids for food in the brain reward pathways. Individuals can fall into a habit of eating when feeling worried, anxious, nervous, or stressed. Lowering anxiety levels can reduce calorie intake and prevent overeating as a coping mechanism.

Decreased alcohol consumption leads to weight loss, not only because of calorie reduction but also from an increased metabolic rate and decreased fat degradation. 

Research has begun to fully understand the mechanisms associated with weight-loss caused by cannabis consumption. The initial results are promising, but there is more research to be done to fully utilize the clinical potential.

Cannabis for Parkinson’s

Endocannabinoid System

Modulates a huge range of physiological functions, including mood, cognition, motor control, feeding behavior, and pain. The System is primarily located in the basal ganglia and has been found involved in several movement disorders, including Parkinson’s disease 

Activating Cannabis Receptors could help treat lack of dopamine-induced Dyskinesia. 

The compounds working within the endocannabinoid system can affect dopamine levels.

Cannabis could help reduce patients’s symptoms.

Parkinson’s Disorder

Parkinson’s disease is characterized by a loss of dopaminergic neurons in the midbrain. It’s a disease where the central nervous system suffers a long-term progressive deterioration. This affects movement, making walking difficult, as well as causing shaking in the limbs and stiff painful muscles. Some patients suffer difficulty sleeping and may have emotional problems.

Dyskinesia

Caused from a lack of dopamine within the brain, specifically, the dopamine receptor.

Dopamine cannot penetrate the blood-brain membrane. Levodopa enters through the membrane and creates dopamine within the brain reducing dyskinesia. 

The Cannabinoid System is partially responsible for controlling the dopamine levels. Clinical and animal model data support the view that modulation of cannabinoid function may exert an antidyskinetic effect.

Levodopa (L-DOPA)

An amino acid precursor of dopamine with antiparkinsonian properties. Levodopa is a is converted to dopamine by DOPA decarboxylase and can cross the blood-brain barrier. When in the brain, levodopa is decarboxylated to dopamine and stimulates the dopaminergic receptors, thereby compensating for the depleted supply of endogenous dopamine seen in Parkinson’s disease. The mechanism assures adequate concentrations of levodopa reach the central nervous system.

Levodopa reduces brain metabolism in patients with Parkinson’s disease, and reduces Parkinson’s related pattern activity, correlating with clinical improvement. 

Dopamine

A recent hypothesis stipulates that the drop of dopamine levels within the brain is caused by an autoimmune process. 

As a fundamental regulator of inflammation. It has been shown that dopaminergic signalling pathways are key players promoting homeostasis between the central nervous system and the immune system.

The entire process is manipulated by the endocannabinoid system. Further Studies of various mechanisms can help us advance medicine significantly.

Chemical Properties 

Formula: C8H11NO2

Molar mass: 153.18 g/mol

Density: 1.26 g/cm³

Boiling point: 128 °C

Chemical Structure