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Terpenes and ocular pathology

How can terpenes affect eye health, vision, and visual perception?

Cannabis might provide performance benefits at low doses through relaxation and possible improvement of auditory and visual perception.


Cannabis can improve the speed in which the eye responds to dim stimuli. Previous reports have documented an improvement in night vision among Jamaican fishermen after ingestion of a crude tincture of herbal cannabis, while two members of this group noted that Moroccan fishermen and mountain dwellers observe an analogous improvement after smoking kif.

They were able to show that this happened because of Cannabinoid Binding with the CB1 receptor, and inhibiting a protein called NKCC1, which shuttles chloride ions in and out of cells to determine their electrical potential. 


Cannabis lowers blood pressure which dilates the blood vessels and increases blood flow throughout the body. Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), relaxes arterial walls resulting in lower blood pressure and increased blood flow to tissues. In the brain, THC regulates the microvascular environment via dose-dependent dilation of cerebral arterioles

Left Occipital 

Cannabis-induced changes in the left occipital area, a region in the back of the brain that processes visual information. Decreased activation in the right prefrontal, medial and dorsal parietal, and medial cerebellar regions, but greater activation in various frontal, parietal and occipital brain regions during the visual-attention tasks

Macular Degeneration 

The symptoms of macular degeneration revolve around vision. The light-sensitive retina cells deteriorate, leading to blind spots.
Endocannabinoid receptors have been found around the ocular region, cannabis use has been found to reduce inflammation, inhibit vascular endothelial growth factor and lower intraocular pressure. Showing incredible promise for cannabis as a treatment for macular degeneration.

Improve Night-Vision.

Experiments show that cannabinoids reduce the concentration of chloride ions inside the retinal ganglion cells, making them more excitable and more sensitive to light,

This effect is dose-dependent and cannabinoid-mediated at the retinal level.

There’s more research to be conducted, however, the results suggest that some of the compounds in cannabis could potentially be useful for treating diseases such as retinitis pigmentosa and glaucoma, which kill off cells in the retina and gradually cause blindness.


These treatments can be achieved by both systemic or localized methods. There are several ocular drops being developed for a wide range of conditions. Therapeutic benefits are possible at a dosage that is not subjectively too intoxicating for the patients. 

In order to apply these performance enhancing qualities to products,

The relative contributions of THC, CBD, Other Cannabinoids and Essential Oil Terpenoids to the observed effects, should be cataloged and quantified.

Which terpenes improve vision? Are there terpenes, when inhaled, that can affect visual perception? What is the correct delivery method? Can cannabinoids improve our ability to detect or process illusions? Can terpenes change our perception of color intensity? Do terpenes affect any enzymes associated with the functions of the eye? What terpenes should I use in my product?

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Cannabis for Parkinson’s

Endocannabinoid System

Modulates a huge range of physiological functions, including mood, cognition, motor control, feeding behavior, and pain. The System is primarily located in the basal ganglia and has been found involved in several movement disorders, including Parkinson’s disease 

Activating Cannabis Receptors could help treat lack of dopamine-induced Dyskinesia. 

The compounds working within the endocannabinoid system can affect dopamine levels.

Cannabis could help reduce patients’s symptoms.

Parkinson’s Disorder

Parkinson’s disease is characterized by a loss of dopaminergic neurons in the midbrain. It’s a disease where the central nervous system suffers a long-term progressive deterioration. This affects movement, making walking difficult, as well as causing shaking in the limbs and stiff painful muscles. Some patients suffer difficulty sleeping and may have emotional problems.


Caused from a lack of dopamine within the brain, specifically, the dopamine receptor.

Dopamine cannot penetrate the blood-brain membrane. Levodopa enters through the membrane and creates dopamine within the brain reducing dyskinesia. 

The Cannabinoid System is partially responsible for controlling the dopamine levels. Clinical and animal model data support the view that modulation of cannabinoid function may exert an antidyskinetic effect.

Levodopa (L-DOPA)

An amino acid precursor of dopamine with antiparkinsonian properties. Levodopa is a is converted to dopamine by DOPA decarboxylase and can cross the blood-brain barrier. When in the brain, levodopa is decarboxylated to dopamine and stimulates the dopaminergic receptors, thereby compensating for the depleted supply of endogenous dopamine seen in Parkinson’s disease. The mechanism assures adequate concentrations of levodopa reach the central nervous system.

Levodopa reduces brain metabolism in patients with Parkinson’s disease, and reduces Parkinson’s related pattern activity, correlating with clinical improvement. 


A recent hypothesis stipulates that the drop of dopamine levels within the brain is caused by an autoimmune process. 

As a fundamental regulator of inflammation. It has been shown that dopaminergic signalling pathways are key players promoting homeostasis between the central nervous system and the immune system.

The entire process is manipulated by the endocannabinoid system. Further Studies of various mechanisms can help us advance medicine significantly.

Chemical Properties 

Formula: C8H11NO2

Molar mass: 153.18 g/mol

Density: 1.26 g/cm³

Boiling point: 128 °C

Chemical Structure