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A New Method to Enhance Smoking Materials

Blending

Blending sprays are used to homogenize the flavor of smoking products in the tobacco industry. 

A new application of this technology is capable of changing the main ingredients of smoking material.

Companies can provide the ultimate composition of the smoking material, achieving various desired goals. 

Background

The secret to a great tasting smoking experience is consistency. Companies use blending to smooth out and remove product harshness to deliver a mellow flavored experience.

Now Cannabis Companies are adapting these techniques to provide a more consistent product and stubble onto breakthroughs.

Flavoring 

Many consumers enjoy the effects and flavors Terpenes provide, but have no access to cannabis. Botanically derived terpenes formulated to cannabis strain concentrations is a technological breakthrough as they can be shipped internationally.

More customers can enjoy their preferred flavors internationally.

Method

Flavoring Hemp, Cannabis or other smokable leaves is simple provided you use safe food grade flavoring, water and propylene Glycol/Cryo Butane. 

Once mixed in correct concentration/temperature and sprayed onto the dry leaf, the propylene Glycol/Cryo Butane traps the flavor into the leafs and evaporates, leaving the terpene flavoring intact.

Complementary chemicals can be added allowing for more control over the final product.

Consistency 

Production

Keeping your product the same from harvest to harvest can be a bit exasperating , not to mention trying to keep up with product shelf-life, etc.

On an industrial scale keeping cannabis fresh and mold free is critical. Infusing a dedicated terpene formulation can extend the shelf-life.

Each curing formulation is precise and unchanged from season to season, reducing inconsistencies in the final product post curing.

Blending can improve many smokable products and provide consistency to cannabis companies that want to scale.

Post Production

Premixed terpene infusion products allow the consumer to infuse terpenes into their favorite smoke product.

DIY infusion kits allow cannabis strain terpene flavors to be sprayed on Damiana, Mullein, Hemp, Tobacco or Marshmallow leaves. Cannabis that has been sitting and degrading can be revitalized with fresh terpenes and cannabinoids.

Using these sprays cannabis compounds can be applied to hookahs, pipes and blunts.

Application

Hemp (not psychoactive cannabis) is legal in many places. Unfortunately, hemp is grown for industrial purposes, taste is not a consideration. Infusing hemp with terpenes can balance and refine the smoking experience. The result is a nicotine free smoking product with all the favored tastes of cannabis without THC. Adding distillate to the terps and spraying on CBD biomass makes decent THC cannabis.

Infusing terpenes has implications on the entire industry from the consumer level to international corporations. As terpene infusion gains popularity, it paves the way to better and more efficient products.

Cannabinoid Toothpaste

An effective toothpaste requires Antibacterial  Analgesic and Whitening  properties combined with a flavorful brushing experience The use of terpene menthol in toothpaste is not uncommon. Using other compounds found in cannabis can improve current oral hygiene products.

Mint Terpene 

A mixture of Terpenes; the basic constituents of these formulations are L-Limonene, Alpha Pinene, Beta Pinene, Cineol and Octanol. It is a colourless, clear and transparent free flowing liquid and have Terpinic, characteristics and odour.

Cannabis Compounds

Other Compounds found in cannabis that can further improve toothpastes.

Cannabinoids

Cannabinoids have the potential to be used as an effective antibacterial agent against dental plaque-associated bacteria. Cannabinoids provide a safer alternative than synthetic antibiotics and reduce bacterial drug resistance.

We now know that cannabis possesses multiple antibacterial qualities. THC, CBD, CBC, and CBG have all exhibited an ability to fight various infections.

Cannabinoids CBD, CBC, CBN, CBG and CBGA  are better at wiping out colonies of bacteria and are considered a new class of antibacterial treatment.

CBG targets the cell membrane of gram positive bacteria and by itself is not effective against gram negative bacteria, which has an additional outer membrane, however a CBG  combination pokes holes in the outer membrane and allows CBG to reach the inner membrane to kill gram-negative bacteria. 

Streptococcus Mutant is gram positive and is the most dominant in creating cavities. Destroying it can prevent tooth decay, this can be achieved safely with canabinoids.

Effects 

Antibacterial Properties

Although commercially available oral care products are considerably effective in maintaining the oral hygiene of the average population. Cannabis-infused mixtures halt the growth of bacteria better than the store-bought brands.

Anti-sensitivity Properties

Analgesic toothpastes currently use a local anesthetic called Benzocaine. Cannabis works on the Endocannabinoid System to naturally reduce pain. Oral administration is shown effective.

Cannabis based toothpaste utilize the pain reduction mechanisms of cannabis to prevent sensitivity.

Whitening toothpaste Properties

4% d-Limonene combined with Perlite whitening formulation significantly reduced stain scores both for smoking stain removal and inhibition.

Existing whitening formulations used peroxidase which is harmful to the dentine tooth cover. In addition, Peroxidase causes oxidative stress. Cannabis alternative toothpastes may therefore be less harmful. 

Flavor 

Terpenes have unique flavors and scents utilized in many products. Terpenes are active orally and can provide an enhanced brushing experience in various ways.

Mainstream Cannabis Toothpaste

Thoughtfully sourced innovative ingredients are waiting to be utilized by the broader audience.

In order to effectively prevent buildup of dental plaque, cannabinoids like CBD, CBC, CBN and CBG need to be further analyzed so they can be effectively used and targeted.

Concentrations are very important for product efficiency.  There is currently research aiming to determine the ultimate cannabis toothpaste formulation specific to individual use.

Active Compounds of Cannabis

Cannabis contains over 500 distinct compounds, which include cannabinoids, flavonoids, nitrogenous compounds, amino acids, hydrocarbons, enzymes, terpenes, and more. 

These compounds altogether contribute to the unique pharmacological function.

Terpenes

Responsible for the aroma of cannabis and other flowering plants. Studies have shown terpenoids to have diverse physiologic effects, and Terpenes may be contributing to the observed effects of cannabis. 

Cannabinoids

Cannabinoids are fatty compounds unique to cannabis, they are the main biological active constituents of cannabis. The most well known cannabinoid is delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC).

Cannabinoids exert their effect on the body by binding to receptors, specifically cannabinoid receptors types 1 and 2. These receptors, together with endogenous cannabinoids and the systems for synthesis, transport, and degradation, are called the Endocannabinoid System.

Nitrogenous Compounds

Display enormous structural diversity, they also have varying degrees of substitution and oxidation. The most noteworthy of these naturally occurring molecules are proteins, and most vitamins and hormones. Notably, an important nitrogenous compound is NO. NO is responsible for vasodilation, healing atherosclerotic arteries and preventing new development of arterial plaque.

Amino Acids

All with the exception of asparagine cysteine glutamine hydroxyproline and hydroxylysine are represented in various cannabis strains. 

Proteins and Enzymes

Proteins: edestin and zeatin

Enzymes: zeatin nucleoside, edeatinase glucoside, polyphenol oxidase, peroxidase and adenosine-5-phsphatase

Sugar Hydrocarbons

monosaccharide, disaccharide, polysaccharide, cyclitol and aminosugars are present and allowing for chemical reactions to take place.

Alcohols, Aldehydes, Ketones and Acids

There are seven simple aliphatic alcohols ranging from C1 to C16

12 aldehydes C2-C13

13 ketones C3-C18

12 simple acids, Aliphatic and aromatic

Fatty Acids

Polyunsaturated fatty acid

Most abundant linoleic,oleic stearic palmitic acids

Esters and Lactones

Typically found twelve esters and one lactone (2-C) in cannabis.

Due to lactone’s low molecular weight it is associated with palmitic and linoleic acids.

Steroids

Eleven phytosterols were identified in cannabis belonging to sitosterol campesterol and ergosterol types. Phytosterols are steroid-like plant compound and have an hormonal effect on the body.

Noncannabinoid Nonflavonoid phenol 

Phenolic compounds have been shown to have antioxidant properties, while the flavonoids in cannabis, in particular, are anti-inflammatory, neuroprotective, and may help prevent and treat cancer. Phenolic compounds also determine plant quality, including flavor and colour. The type of cannabis strain and the ratio of phenolic compounds, cannabinoids, and terpenes contribute to the potency and effects of the plant when consumed.

Flavonoids

Flavonoids are not unique to cannabis. Researchers have identified thousands of them all throughout nature, however, there are some that are found only in cannabis. These are known as cannaflavins. Similar to terpenes, flavonoids play an important role in both plant survival and serve many therapeutic effects.

Vitamins and Pigment

Vitamin k carotene and xanthophylls are reported in cannabis.

Interestingly, more than 2000 compounds are produced by pyrolysis during smoking of cannabis

 The Whole Process

Smoking raw THC distillate by itself is a limited experience. It won’t help become creative or inspired.

Aside from the aforementioned benefits, adding terpenes can reduce the viscosity of distillate or cannabis oil.

Typically, companies will use about 3%-10% terpenes in their oil or distillate mixture, so the terpenes also can help stretch out and make your product go further.

As a product manufacturer, adding terpenes to your product saves you money and enhances your product.

Cannabis Product Development

Terpenes are an integral part of cannabis and act on the body to produce many favorable effects. They help regulate the Endocannabinoid System and are used in an array of products. Utilizing terpenes in products requires several considerations.

Audience

Consumers who want more flavor, aroma and plant-based effects are looking for vape cartridges and infused products with terpenes added back in.

Typical Cannabis Extraction processes are geared toward separating out common Cannabinoids like THC and CBD from raw plant material.

As the more discerning cannabis consumer knows, something is missing when you vape or eat marijuana that lacks terpenes. For craft beer geeks, it would be like quaffing an India Pale Ale without hops.

Vape or edibles companies aiming to capture that consumer looking for the whole-plant experience should seek out firms that extract cannabis terpenes. A more limited, but less expensive, option is a botanically derived version.

Product

What is the product aiming to do? How will Terpenes improve your product?

Terpene research specific to application and delivery method is essential.

Terpene source (cannabis versus botanical) will affect the product delivery. Botanical terpenes will allow for a wider market as it can be shipped worldwide.

Cost

Botanical terps are much cheaper to process and formulate, but they are limited in what they can achieve.

Most terpene formulations offer about 30-50 different botanically derived terpenes. By using scientific methods such as gas chromatography and mass spectrometry, formulators can isolate the strain-specific cannabis terpenes and produce similar formulations from botanical sources.

Extraction companies can source Myrcene and other terpenes from common plants or trees to build that flavor and aroma profile.

Physiologically, a terpene from cannabis or from clove oil, work similarly.

Botanical Terpenes

Why not just extract the terpenes straight from the cannabis plant?

It’s possible, and it’s arguably better to do it that way, but it’s far more expensive.

Comparing terpene profiles from botanicals to cannabis extracted. The complexity of cannabis extracted derived terpenes is greater than Botanically Derived Terpenes, however, the cost and scalability prohibitive.

Consistency 

Consistency is really important, customers get the same experience every time they use your product.

it’s difficult to create an exact, reliable terpene profile from cannabis. 

In order to gain customer loyalty consistency is essential.

Effect

Some people think of terpenes as simply flavoring or added aroma, but they also create a reproducible effect.

Terpenes produce calming, anti-inflammatory or pain management effects.

It is possible to re-create a product (vape pen) that gives your customer a specific, positive effect, every time.

Researchers are not able to identify everything that’s in the cannabis flower, but can identify what’s beneficial to somebody based on trial and error. Identifying and sourcing compounds is the first step in formulating profiles.

Terpenes Build Brands

Terpenes are not just a scent, they provide balance and build an experience for many types of products.

Proper research should be done during product development.

It is important to keep products consistently providing desired effects.

Cannabis companies can use terpenes to produce a specific, effects-based brand.

Botanical terpenes are cost efficient, consistent and scalable.

Cannabis Nomenclature

Different cannabis types and their derived consumer products are commonly referred to as ‘strain’ names. These names often relate to fragrance attributes conferred, at least in part, by terpenes.

Terpenes are strongly inherited and little influenced by environmental factors. Kush strains are predisposed to having high Myrcene concentrations. Terpene profiles have been widely used as biochemical marker in chemosystematic studies to characterize plant species,however, plants exhibit dynamic biochemical changes when attacked by diseases, herbivores or abiotic stresses.

Cannabis has a complex terpene profile, which is theorized to increase its therapeutic effects. Terpene profiling is used for both product quality testing and Strain Identification. These complex and sometimes problematic compounds are challenging to analyze, but experts have developed qualitative GC methodology for terpene profiling that fits easily into required laboratory workflows. To keep things simple, the GC terpene profile analysis.

Synergistic Effect appears to stem from the perception among cannabis users that different ‘strains’ have different physiological effects. There is no doubt that the large chemical space of thousands of plant terpenes and terpenoids includes many biologically active molecules. 

Various effects that are attributed to cannabis terpenes in humans require more research. While some of the effects of the Cannabinoids have been scientifically explained, there is a great deal of uncertainty about the effects of cannabis terpenes and metabolic pathways in humans.

Until recently, regulations have hindered research. Lifting some of the legal restrictions on cannabis, allows to build stronger scientific knowledge of the genomic, molecular and biochemical properties that define terpene and cannabinoid profiles in different cannabis ‘strains’, and supports the development of a well-defined cannabis profile classification. 

We are slowly beginning to fully understand the hidden benefits of terpenes so they can be utilized in a wide range of applications.

Myrcene Profile

Myrcene derives its name from a Brazilian medicinal shrub called myrcia sphaerocarpa.

The scent is characterized by its earthy, musky, clove-like and pungent. Aside from cannabis, it can be found in basil, mangoes and other plants . The unique therapeutic effects may contribute meaningfully to the Entourage Effect. Myrcene synergizes the activities of terpenes and other compounds in a variety of ways.

Sedative Effects

Myrcene shows anxiolytic and hypnotic effects upon inhaled administration, however, hypnotic effect by oral supplementation has not been determined yet. 

Myrcene and α-Pinene increase GABAA receptor activity in cell experiments. 

Analgesic Effects 

Myrcene analgesic and anti-inflammatory actions can be attributed to reduction of peripheral nociception by inhibition of prostaglandin release. In other words, it helps to reduce the perception of pain by helping to stimulate opioid receptor assisting in pain relief.

Anti-Nociceptive Effects

It appears that Myrcene lowers resistance across the blood brain barrier, improving permeability, so that β-myrcene itself and many other chemicals (including the analgesic THC) may cross the barrier more effectively.

Anti-Inflammatory Effects

Myrcene could inhibit the LPS-induced inflammation, including cell migration, which is a key feature of pleurisy and generally of inflammatory response. β-myrcene was found to have immunoregulatory activity, inhibiting the production of nitrogen oxide (NO), as well as cytokines Interferon gamma (IFNγ) and Interleukin-4 (IL-4), which is normally overproduced during excessive inflammation.

Anti-Diabetes Effects

Shown to improve glucose tolerance in diabetics without effects on glucose level in non-diabetics. This means that myrcene can be used as preventative medicine.

It is important to understand that effective treatment for diabetes and hypertension are preliminary and need further research.

Anti-Mutagenic Effects

Myrcene is an organic compound with anti-mutagenic properties. It reduced the toxic and mutagenic effects of a form and reduced the medication’s ability to induce sister chromatid exchange (SCE). The abnormal occurrence of SCE is a potential marker for cancer.

Myrcene’s inhibition of the liver enzyme CYP2B1 is responsible for these anti-mutagen effects. Myrcene also mitigates DNA damage from toxins. 

Hypertension

Myrcene has also been used for many years as a folk remedy for diabetes.

Monoterpenes also produce significant effects on the cardiovascular system, promoting, among other actions, vasorelaxation, decreased heart rate, and hypertension.

Improves Immune Function

Myrcene has been found to improve immune function by inhibiting the production of nitrogen oxide in immune cells, returning elevated stress levels in the immune system to near-normal. Further research is needed to fully understand myrcene’s mechanisms and interactions.

Safety 

The terpene is not classified as dangerous in unconcentrated form. The flavor poses no hazards under normal conditions of handling and usage. If misused in its concentrated form, the flavor may be harmful to health.  It is very important to know precisely the concentration for each application and delivery method.

Storage

Keep the container tightly sealed. Store in a cool, dry, secure, flammable storage area away from all sources of ignition. Protect from light, avoid uncoated metal containers, and keep air contact to a minimum. Incompatible with strong oxidizing agents, acids and bases. Avoid extended storage by using as soon as possible within designated shelf life.

Chemical Properties 

Formula: C10H16

Molar mass: 136.23 g/mol

Density: 794 kg/m³

Boiling point: 167 °C

Chemical Structure

Cannabinoids for COVID-19

Recently it has been discovered that cannabis, specifically CBD, can dramatically improve and reduce inflammation caused by COVID-19 leading to organ failure in advanced cases. In contrast to steroids, which can also reduce the inflammation and suppress the immune system, cannabinoids can reduce the inflammation without suppressing the immune system. It may be possible to reduce the inflammation and enable the immune system to attack the virus.

The lungs are the organ most affected by COVID-19, causing pneumonia that rapidly progresses to acute respiratory distress syndrome and can further result in respiratory failure, septic shock, or multi-organ failure, and in the most severe cases death.
There is not much published research on the effects of cannabinoids on Viral Infections, but quite a bit of anecdotal evidence exists.

Endocannabinoid System

Cannabinoids, such as THC and CBD, have been shown to have pain-relieving, sleep-inducing, and anti-inflammatory properties. Terpenes play a crucial role in Regulation of the endocannabinoid system. Cannabis may help reduce body aches, ease inflammation of the airways, and increase relaxation and enable sleep. In addition antipyretic or fever-reducing properties, due to its ability to regulate the immune system.

Mechanism

The endocannabinoid system is responsible for intercellular communication.

Mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) are small particles that are created when stem cells get multiplied. 

Exosomes are lipid bilayer-enclosed structures, released by cells and involved in intercellular communication. Exosomes-inhibiting agents can sensitize and slow infection and even reduce cancer.

Recent in-vivo and in-vitro studies have demonstrated that exosomes derived from MSC can promote regeneration and improve immune reaction processes in damaged tissues. Exosomes contain anti-inflammatory agents that can target inflamed organs. 

Researchers have already successfully loaded exosomes with various molecules. They have also succeeded in treating different tissue injuries in animal models, while significantly reducing inflammation and pathological impairment. To date, there have been hundreds of publications and several clinical studies using exosomes globally, demonstrating their therapeutic potential at different applications.

Immune Response 

It is important to understand that exacerbation of the condition is due to the excessive immune response of the body against the virus. Cannabis compounds have the ability to lower the immune system’s response without suppressing it, thereby providing better complementary treatment than steroids, which completely suppresses the immune system.

Cannabis Research 

Medical cannabis companies are joining Biotech and Biomed companies in the race to develop a cure. Previous Research on the effect of the cannabis plant on human cells can accelerate the arrival of complementary treatment.

If cannabis succeeds as a complementary treatment, it will be an achievement for the industry. 

Terpenes and ocular pathology

How can terpenes affect eye health, vision, and visual perception?

Cannabis might provide performance benefits at low doses through relaxation and possible improvement of auditory and visual perception.

Vision

Cannabis can improve the speed in which the eye responds to dim stimuli. Previous reports have documented an improvement in night vision among Jamaican fishermen after ingestion of a crude tincture of herbal cannabis, while two members of this group noted that Moroccan fishermen and mountain dwellers observe an analogous improvement after smoking kif.

They were able to show that this happened because of Cannabinoid Binding with the CB1 receptor, and inhibiting a protein called NKCC1, which shuttles chloride ions in and out of cells to determine their electrical potential. 

Blood-Flow

Cannabis lowers blood pressure which dilates the blood vessels and increases blood flow throughout the body. Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), relaxes arterial walls resulting in lower blood pressure and increased blood flow to tissues. In the brain, THC regulates the microvascular environment via dose-dependent dilation of cerebral arterioles

Left Occipital 

Cannabis-induced changes in the left occipital area, a region in the back of the brain that processes visual information. Decreased activation in the right prefrontal, medial and dorsal parietal, and medial cerebellar regions, but greater activation in various frontal, parietal and occipital brain regions during the visual-attention tasks

Macular Degeneration 

The symptoms of macular degeneration revolve around vision. The light-sensitive retina cells deteriorate, leading to blind spots.
Endocannabinoid receptors have been found around the ocular region, cannabis use has been found to reduce inflammation, inhibit vascular endothelial growth factor and lower intraocular pressure. Showing incredible promise for cannabis as a treatment for macular degeneration.

Improve Night-Vision.

Experiments show that cannabinoids reduce the concentration of chloride ions inside the retinal ganglion cells, making them more excitable and more sensitive to light,

This effect is dose-dependent and cannabinoid-mediated at the retinal level.

There’s more research to be conducted, however, the results suggest that some of the compounds in cannabis could potentially be useful for treating diseases such as retinitis pigmentosa and glaucoma, which kill off cells in the retina and gradually cause blindness.

Methods

These treatments can be achieved by both systemic or localized methods. There are several ocular drops being developed for a wide range of conditions. Therapeutic benefits are possible at a dosage that is not subjectively too intoxicating for the patients. 

In order to apply these performance enhancing qualities to products,

The relative contributions of THC, CBD, Other Cannabinoids and Essential Oil Terpenoids to the observed effects, should be cataloged and quantified.

Which terpenes improve vision? Are there terpenes, when inhaled, that can affect visual perception? What is the correct delivery method? Can cannabinoids improve our ability to detect or process illusions? Can terpenes change our perception of color intensity? Do terpenes affect any enzymes associated with the functions of the eye? What terpenes should I use in my product?

Feel free to Contact Us

Humulene Terpene Profile

Common Cannabis Terpene

Humulene, along with Caryophyllene and Limonene, is one of the most common cannabis terpenes. Humulene shares another connection with caryophyllene: Both are present in the hops found in beer. 

Humulene Origin 

The therapeutic usage of the humulene terpene traces back to ancient Chinese apothecaries that employed high dosages of the terpene in their Remedies. Even today, Chinese ginseng, which contains humulene, is used for many purposes, notably as an energy booster and a natural antibiotic. 

Humulene source

Was first found in the Essential Oils of humulus lupulus (or common hops). Chances are you have had a sensory encounter with the humulene terpene. It is present in plants such as marsh elders, tobacco and cannabis. Many herbs and spices contain humulene, including sage, ginseng, and coriander.

Humulene Scent and Flavor 

Humulene scent is earthy, wood-like and pungent aroma.

It provides a flavorful bite that is popular in Asian cuisine. Similarly, humulene is credited for giving beer its bitter flavor, thanks to the terpene’s abundance in hops.

Therapeutic Effects of Humulene

Scientific studies have investigated whether humulene effects include anti-inflammatory, antitumor, and other medical benefits. Results have been encouraging, but further research is needed to establish a solid relationship between humulene and improved health outcomes.

Anti-inflammatory

Many terpenes present in cannabis, have shown promise in treating inflammatory conditions. Humulene is among the terpenes that may exhibit anti-inflammatory action.

This terpene might represent an important tool for the management and treatment of inflammatory diseases.

The effectiveness of oral humulene was further confirmed by a study which demonstrated that humulene is absorbed when it is Applied Topically

Humulene possesses both topical and systemic anti-inflammatory properties and is helpful in treating Arthritis, Bursitis, Fibromyalgia, and other conditions that benefit from reducing inflammation.

Humulene could be effective when administered orally or inhaled as an aerosol to combat allergies.

Anti-tumor

Humulene has been tested for its efficacy in fighting several types of cancerous cells. A Study found that the humulene in balsam fir oil effectively kills tumor cells by turning off their antioxidant processes.

Weight-loss 

As an appetite suppressant, humulene works alongside other Chemicals in Cannabis to promote weight loss.

Anti-Bacterial 

Humulene is known for its notable anti-bacterial properties, such as those against the bacteria Staphylococcus aureus when used in appropriate quantities.

A prominent terpene in cannabis, humulene is distinctive for its association with the hops in beer and has shown potential in treating allergies, tumors, and particularly inflammation. This terpene is notably lacking in the CB2 Receptor, further research has to be conducted to better understand the mechanisms correlated to humulene’s effects.

Chemical Properties 

Formula: C15H24

Molar mass: 204.35 g/mol

Density: 886 kg/m³

Boiling point: 106 °C

Chemical Structure

Shipping Terpenes

You should be aware that shipping research materials, such as terpenes, within the United States and abroad has become a highly regulated process.

Storage 

The facility requirements for storing terpenes are no different from storing most other common chemicals. Proper care should be exercised and concern should be given to container compatibility, shelf life, and safety.

Shelf Life & Storage Conditions

Under ideal conditions, the shelf life of terpenes is 18 months to two years. Improper storage and handling can lead to reduced shelf life.

Store in a well ventilated area with proper sprinkler/fire deterrent system. Storage temperature should not exceed the flash point (110°F/43°C) for extended periods of time. Keep container closed when not in use. Air should be excluded from partially filled containers by displacing with nitrogen or carbon dioxide. Do not cut, drill, grind, or weld on or near this container; residual vapors may ignite.

The freezing point of terpene formulations vary around -96° C (-142° F). Exposure to extreme low temperatures should not affect the formulation or product quality; however at -78°C (-108°F) d-Limonene will become difficult to pump. It should also be noted that water – which is naturally present in trace amounts – might be extracted from the formulation if exposed to temperatures below 0° C (32° F). Freezing temperatures will not affect the integrity of the product but water may collect at the bottom of the drum or storage tank. If the drum is un-lined, the water may cause rust. This is rarely a storage issue in the phenolic-lined drums used by most companies.

Safety

It is recommended that all local storage safety precautions be followed. In many states, terpenes are not considered a hazardous material when stored in a warehouse in drums. When shipped by air or ocean, terpenes are considered a hazardous material and must be labeled accordingly. If terpenes are stored in drums marked with hazardous labels, local regulatory agencies may consider them hazardous. 

Shipping

International legal landscape for cannabis derived terpenes is questionable at best. Botanically derived terpenes are shipped internationally, that being said some countries have notorious bureaucracy. Both export and import documentation needs to be attached including handling instructions, permissions and safety sheets. It is mandatory to purchase insurance on the package. For any issues feel free to Contact Us.

Handling 

Always wear the appropriate personal protective equipment when handling essential oils, especially safety glasses and gloves. The best material for gloves, aprons, and goggles specific to handling terpenes are nitrile , although Viton and polyethylene film will also work.

When transferring from drums or tankers into smaller containers, braided PVC tubing will hold up for a while, but will eventually become rigid. The newer materials using halogenated polymers or fluoromers will work best for this use. Braided PVC or Tygon tubing will hold up for a while.

For clean-up purposes when a NIOSH filter is needed, always use an organic cartridge.

Chemical Companies recommend the use of grounding clamps whenever transferring liquids.

Shipping Regulations

International shipping regulations vary widely from country to country. If appropriate paperwork is not received by the customs official in the destination country, terpenes will not be allowed entrance.