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Commercial and Personal Cannabis Growing Guide



Provides needed energy and used to produce sugars via photosynthesis 

Measured with photons/light intensity.

Classified by Light spectrum.

Plants use photons as an energy source needed to complete photosynthesis as they carry Energy proportional to their frequency.

Inverse square law states the intensity of light changes inversely to the square of the distance of the source


Mathematically, double the distance, energy will be ¼ intensity.

Cannabis light intensity 

Light intensity affects different processes within cannabis and can vary with condition. General growing intensities are as follows.

  • Seedlings and clones 200–400μmol/m²/s.
  • Vegetative phase 400–600μmol/m²/s, 
  • Flowering cannabis 600–1500μmol/m²/s

Light Spectrum

The entire range of electromagnetic radiation consists from various wavelengths which determine the color on the spectrum.

Generally plants use the photosynthetic active range (PAR) of spectrum.

Different chemicals react ideally to different light wavelengths.

  • Chlorophyll A (red,violet, blue)
  • Chlorophyll B (blue,orange)
  • Carotenoids (green,blue) help with eliminating free radical oxygen during photosynthesis to prevent cell degradation
  • Phytochrome (red/infrared) Signals plant to sleep or wake up  and causes florogen production. Has two states Pr (orange/yellow) and Pfr (red/infrared). Helps to keep cannabis in a vegitative state or to blossom.

Cannabis wavelength 

Cannabis prefers the following light colors.

400-460nm in vegitative growth

580-700nm in flowering


Photosynthetic cycle and the calvin cycle

6CO2 + 6H20 + (energy) → C6H12O6 + 6O2 Carbon dioxide + water + energy

Calvin cycle 

Does not need light only CO2

3 CO2 + 6 NADPH + 5 H2O + 9 ATP → glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate (G3P) + 2 H+ + 6 NADP+ + 9 ADP + 8 inorganic phosphate

Light Schedule

Cannabis requires 18-6 or continuous 24-hour light during vegitative growth period (little to no dark hours).

Cannabis requires a 12-12 light schedule during flowering.

it is important to keep the dark hours light-free.


CO2 Oxygen osmotic potential

Internal pressure regulated by input and output of oxygen and water

CO2 used for photosynthesis and enters through the stomata.

O2 enters through roots and is a byproduct of photosynthesis.

Exists through the stomata. 


Vegetative Stage: 20-30°C range

Flowering Stage:  18-26°C 


  • Clones 70%
  • Vegetative 40-60%
  • Flowering 40-50%
  • Final weeks of flowering 40-45%

Additional CO

The more light intensity the more CO2 cannabis plants need. Cannabis Can Use Up to 1500 PPM  COincreasing COconcentrations can increase yield. Only growers who benefit from added CO2 are those who desire quicker yields. 


Always make sure to have air circulation around the plant.

Do not point the fan directly on your plants.

Water and Nutrients 

Water is used for photosynthesis, transpiration and mineral uptake

Water polarity and ph are vital for nutrient uptake.

Watering Cannabis

Watering less often and thoroughly is better than giving your cannabis a little water often.

Make sure to drench the entire medium completely.

Know that slightly underwatering your plants is always better than overwatering as it encourages root formation. 

Primary Minerals 

Cannabis essentially needs 13 minerals for growth

N,P,K,Ca,Mg,S,Fe,B,Zn,Cu, Mn, Mo, Cl


Nitrogen, Phosphorus, Potassium (NPK)

Secondary and Nonessential Nutrients

Needed for plant actions and play i vital roll in cannabis’ life cycle.

Deficiency and Toxicity 

Mobile Deficiency shows on the older leaves first.

N,Mg Ni

Imobile Deficiency growth moves from the roots to final location start at the news growth. 

B, Ca, Mg, Fe, Cu, Fe, Zn

Nutrient Schedule

Vegetative Stage

N – P – K

3 – 1 – 2

Flowering Stage

N – P – K

1 – 1 – 2

Final Flowering Stage

N – P – K

0 – 1 – 2

Reduce Nitrogen two weeks after flipping 12/12 light schedule will assist in stopping the vertical growth (stretch) and result in a less leafy, smoother burning, and denser end product. 


Primary hormones and their function phytochrome

Auxins responsible for cell direction and elongation

Cytokinin works with Auxins and is needed for cell division 

Gibberellins tigres seed to germinate

Ethylene in gaseous form make the responsible for maturation/calyx close up in cannabis

Abscisic protects plant from drought signals the stoma to close 

Florigen signals start of flowering

We can generally categorise the individual phytohormones as working to either promote, inhibit or otherwise affect growth in one way or another.

With correct genetics and epigenetic conditions, a typical grow does not need phytohormone intervention.


Forms a symbiotic association between cannabis and a fungus. The plant makes organic molecules such as sugars by photosynthesis and supplies them to the fungus, and the fungus supplies to the plant water and mineral nutrients from the soil.

In addition to soil medium, cannabis can be grown in water. Lately new gel growing mediums have been developed that automates the growing process. In addition, automated growing tents help have tighter control while growing.

These are guidelines to help you grow your first cannabis harvest. Like any other science, botany consists of experimentation. 

Do not get discouraged, help shape future cannabis genetics. We love to hear your favorite growing techniques.

Ethnoecology of Cannabis

The cross-cultural study of how people perceive and manipulate their environments. 

Cannabis Classification 

Cannabis is classified in the plant family.

Likes to live in disturbed areas with some sunlight. 

Monecious plant that has male and female sex.

Females can produce hundreds of seeds when fertilized.

THC levels drop when fertilized, many growers use sinsemilla (without seeds) techniques that prevent fertilization.

Most molecular phylogeneticists consider Cannabis Sativa as the only species in the genus with many varieties & subspecies such as cannabis sativa, indica and ruderalis. 

Any given variety has various Cannabinoids Composition in the trichomes.

Cannabis Administration

  • Inhaled 
  • Swallowed and absorbed in the gastrointestinal tract
  • Absorbed through mucosal membranes
  • Absorbed through skin

Ethnobotanical Use of Cannabis 

There are numerous Active Compounds in cannabis 

Variety of different uses ranging from glaucoma to topical applications 

Botanical Medicine

Compound Delivery Methods

Transdermal Absorption 

Fighting Viral and Bacterial Infections

Parkinson’s Disorder

Ocular Pathology


Biodegradable Plastics

Cannabis Anatomy 


Cannabis pith (inner layer) is surrounded by a woody core called the hurd.

The hurd is a source for tough hemp fiber.


Growth points along the stem.


A cola refers to tightly clustered buds. Smaller colas occur along the budding sites, the main cola (apical bud) forms at the very top of the plant.

Stigma and pistil

The pistil contains the reproductive parts of the flower. Stigmas serve to collect pollen from males. They play an important role in reproduction.

Bract and calyx

A bract encapsulates the carpel (female’s reproductive parts). It is covered in resin glands which produce high concentrations of cannabinoids in cannabis. Enclosed by these bracts and imperceptible to the eye, the calyx refers to a translucent layer over the ovule at a flower’s base.


Glands on the leaves, stems, and calyxes. Trichomes were originally developed to protect the plant against predators and the elements. These clear aromatic oils contain Terpenes and Cannabinoids like THC and CBD. 

Cannabis Origins 

Native Geography

Domesticated Eurasia 10000 years ago for various uses 

One of the oldest domesticated plant 

Hemp dyed with indigo dye was used for trading while others found other uses for the Cannabis plant.

Non-human dispersal methods

  • Terrestrial animals
  • Birds
  • Streams
  • Insects 

Selective Breeding 

Cannabis traits

Well adapted to live in Anthrome (biomes)

Used for Food, fiber, medicine, psychotropic effects

Human impact

Ecological traits- growing close to humans knowns as ethnoecology

Horticultural- encouraging desirable traits by direct hybridization 

There is a growing trend to grow CBD rich flowers in areas THC is still restricted.

Research is unveiling CBD’s potential and will over time have Genetic Outcomes.

We can not predict the role cannabis will serve in the future and how our intervention will impact future strains’ genetics, but there is still much research to be done to maximize cannabis’s potential.

Cannabis Marketing Explained

The cannabis industry has been expanding, new products, dispensaries, grow supplies and medical research are all gaining interest.

The legal framework is shifting almost daily does not stop investors, researchers, and entrepreneurs from entering the field. Exposure remains a hurdle on the way to Scalability

Advertising platforms are having a hard time keeping up with varying regulations. 

Paid advertising is either tricky or straight up impossible for many cannabis-related products due to the Terms of Service of many advertising platforms.

Top ranked positions now hold valuable growth opportunities as they allow for dedicated user following and monetization.

While the techniques often change, there are some concepts to keep in mind.


Simply think like your users, what would you type to find your content, what will your friends write if they were interested. Now envision your perfect user’s search intent.

Keyword research is not difficult. Just go for the keywords with low SEO difficulty and high search volume. 

User Experience

Load time

Everything is happening quickly, users demand fast load time. 


How easy is it to navigate your site?

Does it get stuck?

Are there distracting popups?

Did you guide your user to the correct page?

Do forms require a specific input method?

Does the user gain benefit?

User behavior 

How long were visitors on site?

How often do they return to the site?

How many pages did they visit?

Did they perform a user action?

Added Value 

Knowledge convenience, affordability, quality and comfort are just some benefits that may be provided. Time is important. 

Domain Authority 


The more people mention you the more exposure there is.

Backlink Source : Are they themselves credible or in the same industry?

Backlink Activity: How active and relevant is the link?

A mark of quality is returning visitors, that indicates satisfaction. 

Domain History

The more active a platform the more potential for growth.

Domain age, volatility of ownership and prestigious affiliations to assess apparent prestige.

A business with a long active history is more authoritative.

These advertising principles apply to all online advertising methods. Automated Paid (SEM), Organic Search Optimization (SEO), Media Buying, and Social networks. Web presence is vitally important.

Before building an advertising strategy, check the terms of service of your platform and web hosting.

Every great startup needs people who believe in it.

Guidelines for Producing CBD/THC Vape Cartridges.

Most people get their Cannabis Vape cartridges from a dispensary or online retailer. No matter where the source, cartridges need to be filled before they are sold. A lot of cost is associated with the painstaking process of filling cartridges often one by one. If you have been wondering what the ratios for filling a full spectrum cannabis or CBD vape cartridge and what the process is, or just wanted to see a step by step guide for mixing and filling vape cartridges, you’ve come to the right place. In this tutorial, we’ll teach the mixing ratios of terpenes, Cannabis oil/Hemp oil, and Viscosity Booster and exactly how to fill a dab pen. We’ll be mixing and filling our pens from scratch using a tried and true process that there isn’t a whole lot of info online about. if you’re looking to start a vape pen company and need to know the first steps, read on as we break down the entire process for mixing and filling a vape cartridge at home.

Cartridge Filling Supplies

  • Cartridges
  • Viscosity Booster/Liquifier
  • THC/CBD Oil or concentrate
  • Pure Terpenes – Cannabis or Plant Derived
  • Hot Water Bath or – a Pot, Bowl, and stove top
  • 10ml Syringe with 14 Gauge Blunt tip
  • Alcohol wipes for cleaning
  • Metal Mixing Ramiken
  • Digital Scale
  • Gloves

Pure Botanical/Cannabis Derived Terpenes

Terpenes are credited with giving Cannabis a uniquely broad spectrum Effect . provide scents and tastes. New Technologies allow terpene infused products that will both capture the recreational cannabis audience and interest the health-conscious consumer. Some terpenes like Limonene increase energy while some terpenes like Myrcene promote relaxation. It is essential to choose a strain profile or terpene combination to support the type of feeling you would like to experience. Not only are there over 200 distinct terpenes that can be present in Cannabis but terpene profiles can often contain over 50 different terpenes in just one strain. Terpene scents range from earthy, pungent to gassy, or pinny, citrusy,and even fruity. Each consumer has individual preferences. It is recommended to experiment with different terpene profiles until you find one that fits you perfectly. 

Vape Cartridges

Having a quality vape cartridge ready for stores often starts with picking quality vape cartridge hardware. Cartridges these days are often prone to damage during shipping, leakage and even corrosion. It is crucial to extensively research everything to avoid unwanted interactions within the cartilage.

There are various styles to choose from depending on preference in design and the viscosity of your oil. Mouthpieces options include wood, ceramic, plastic, and metal. Tank options include various shapes and sizes. Cartridges usually come standard with a 2mm diameter intake hole which can be seen inside the cartridge tank. This hole is where your oil will enter to meet the atomizer which will atomize or “vaporize” your oil into an inhalable vapor. High viscosity oils are typically a sign of pure oil indicating that only terpenes were mixed in. When high viscosity oil is put inside a cartridge, it produces an air bubble that does not easily move when the cartridge is flipped upside down. Low viscosity oils produce a faster moving bubble and are typically made by blending viscosity booster/liquefier/diluent and terpenes with the Cannabis or Hemp oil. Low viscosity oils may require a smaller intake hole to prevent leakage but using a quality cartridge should prevent dilutions of up to 30%. You can use any concentrate by mixing it with a viscosity booster.

Viscosity Booster

Viscosity booster is a great way to control your potency and stretch your dollar. Viscosity Booster also makes for a smoother smoke as it allows the concentrate to be turned into vapor with less heat than the oil alone. While some users prefer to have the strongest cartridge available in their arsenal, others prefer to have a cartridge that produces a comfortable micro dosing effect. There are many viscosity boosters on the market which all do pretty much the same thing. When choosing a viscosity booster, it is recommend using one that doesn’t Include Vegetable Glycerin(VG), Propylene Glycol(PG), Polyethylene glycol(PEG) or any of the others commonly used in e-cig “Vape Juice.” Not only is viscosity booster for controlling your dosage, but you will also find that by following this process you will be able to double if not triple the amount of product you have at the perfect dose. Remember, this is about creating the perfect product for your needs. While someone may need 100mgs of vapor, it is not uncommon for some to need/want 10-20mgs.

THC/CBD Oil or Concentrate

The most important ingredient on the list should be the concentrate or oil you want to use in your vape cartridge. While it is recommended to use Cannabis/Hemp Oil (Distillate) for ease of use, it is also fairly simple to use concentrates like Rosin, Shatter, Budder, Sugar, Sauce, etc… As mentioned before, high-quality oil should be highly viscous but what if all you have is Shatter, Sauce or Rosin? Not to worry. You can easily heat and mix your concentrate with liquefier and terpenes while blending until the liquid is fully emulsified and ready for use in a cartridge. using VG, PEG, or PG when using a “Solid Concentrate” is not recommended as some separation may occur.

Other Supplies

This can get messy when you are a beginner. To make things easy and clean, it is recommended to use gloves, alcohol wipes, and fresh syringes. 

Process: How to Mix and Fill a Cartridge

The filling is often the messiest and challenging part for a first-time filler. Not only will you need to watch for spillage and waste but you will need to be careful not to overfill your cartridges. You will want to be vigilant about not going all the way to the very top of the cartridge as you fill. There’s nothing worse than doing all the pre-filling set up just to waste your product at the end. Some cartridges have a fill line, so you know where to stop while others don’t. In this process, you will learn to properly heat up your ingredients, mix Terpenes and Viscosity Booster with THC/CBD Oil then use a syringe to fill your cartridges. These instructions are for using 5mls(5 Grams) of oil. It is recommended to use milliliters when measuring for accuracy but using a scale that reads Grams will be just fine.

Step 1

Warm up your Oil or Concentrate to about 85-90 degrees Celsius 

Step 2

Check to see if your oil is warmed up – It is ready to go when the oil is fully liquified, and there are no chunks of concentrate at the bottom or floating around. 

If you are using a concentrate other than oil ex: Shatter, you will need to mix the concentrate and the viscosity booster with heat applied. A two to one ratio is a good place to start, but you can always add more concentrate to increase the potency and viscosity or more viscosity booster to lower the potency and viscosity. It really comes down to your preference.

Step 3

Take your liquified Oil or liquified concentrate mixture and add in your Terpenes and Viscosity Booster. If you already added Viscosity Booster because you are using a concentrate other than Oil/Distillate you can choose to add more Viscosity booster or leave it out completely. The ratio for terpenes and oil can be to your preference, but it is recommended doing 5-10% Terpenes and 5-10%Viscosity Booster for a total of 10-20%.the guide, we did 5ml (or 5 Grams) off full spectrum CBD Oil, 0.5ml of Terpenes, and 0.5mls of Viscosity Booster totaling 6mls(or 6 Grams) of finished product ready for use in a pen. Generally speaking mimicking the flower’s natural concentrations is the best approach.

Step 4

Blend/Mix all the ingredients very well. There should be no difference in color or viscosity throughout the entire mixture. The whole mix must be fully emulsified.

Step 5

Once everything is blended, you will want to suck it up with a syringe.

After the oil mixture is inside the syringe, it is ready to be poured inside the cartridge.

Step 6

The syringe should have volume marks reading in milliliters. You will put 1ml into a 1ml cartridge and 0.50mls into a half gram or .5 ml cartridge. Fill to the mark if the cartridge has one, if not fill the cartridge until it is nearly full with some room for an air bubble at the top. The air bubble is used by some people to gauge the potency of a cartridge. This technique works well for oil but does not apply to cartridges made with other concentrates.

Step 7

Once your cartridges are full, cap them tight and flip them over to “Rest.” Let them rest for 1 hour. During this period and air that was compressed and trapped during the cartridge filling and capping process will have the chance to escape out of the intake holes. Flipping your cartridge during the rest period will allow the air to escape without causing your cartridge to leak. This is a critical step!

Step 8

Using alcohol wipe or an alcohol-soaked paper towel, clean off the outside of your cartridge of any excess oil that may have been spilled onto it from a drippy syringe or overfilled cartridge

Test Product!

After your product has rested, test it out! 

Terpenes and boosters are tested extensively before sold to customers. Producing them in house is therefore very expensive. When using lab tested ingredients and working according to protocol your product is safe.

Start with small hits to make sure the ceramic coil or heating element is primed and ready for use. Priming your cartridge is a great way to ensure maximum flavor from start to finish without getting a burnt taste.

It is crucial to have the right equipment and knowledge before attempting to produce cartilages. 

Any unwanted interaction can be fatal.

If cartilages are made correctly they are a safe way to deliver accurate doses of cannabis.

Cartilages are designed to be customizable to preferences.

Phylogenetics- Hidden Characteristics of Cannabis

The cannabis that you smoke today is likely descended from cannabis ancestors that form the bedrock of the cannabis breeding pool since ancient times. The varieties referenced are not strains, but rather the entire groups cannabis strains came from.

Plants of the Cannabis genus are the only prolific producers of phytocannabinoids, compounds that strongly interact with the evolutionarily ancient Endocannabinoid Receptors. Cannabis has been cultivated not only for these compounds, but also for Material. Today, specialized varieties yielding high-quality textile fibers, nutritional seed oil, or high cannabinoid content are cultivated across the globe. However, the genetic identities and histories of these diverse populations remain largely obscured.

Cannabis History 

The cannabis species originated and was originally domesticated in Central Asia. The origin story and family tree has been often debated. However, botany leaders aim to bring some clarification to help save the ancestor of all modern cannabis. 


The study of evolutionary relationships between groups of organisms, 

We have some basis for classifying plants according to their genetic similarities and trace ancestry. 

Cladistic System 

Relies on the presence of a single common ancestor. In this way, every clade (branch) of the phylogenetic tree contains the descendants of a single common ancestor. When many plants share a common ancestor, they are said to be monophyletic.

Genetic Origin

Cannabaceae includes roughly 170 species from 10 genera: Cannabis (hemp and marijuana), Humulus (hops), and eight genera that were formerly in the Celtidaceae (hackberry) family. Prior to the 21st century, the Cannabaceae family was only thought to include the Cannabis and Humulus genera. It wasn’t until recently that researchers merged Celtidaceae and Cannabaceae based on genetic evidence.


One distinctive feature of the Cannabis genus is the production of a large diversity of compounds called Cannabinoids, they are so named because they are not produced in high levels in any other plant species

Additionally, the third subspecies of cannabis is cannabis sativa subsp ruderalis. Ruderalis is a wild variety that has low THC contents and is autoflowering or day neutral.


All modern cannabis plants are of the family and species cannabis sativa. For many in the cannabis industry Indica and Sativa have been the bedrock of how people communicate the morphology and subjective effects of the plant. However, science has begun to classify by chemovar. The terpene and cannabinoid profile in the plant is a better indicator of effect than the shape of the plant. The synergistic combination of compounds contributes to the Entourage Effect also known as the ensemble effect.

Human Interference

The biggest threats to these landrace cannabis varieties come from humanity. In the search for the best plants for effect, yield, resistance to disease and other characteristics humans have interbred these landraces. Thousands of years of widespread domestication resulted in unaltered wild cannabis plants disappearing. The cannabis plants that humans breed around the world have been heavily cross-bred and selected for certain traits, resulting in a complicated mixture of genes.


Genetic advances allow us to better select favorable traits. In doing so endemic species are often impacted through reduction in seeds for reproduction taken by humans for breeding or cultivation. Selective cultivation often leads to artificial selection for traits rather than reproductive fitness or genetic diversity. Overtime, these varieties escape domestication and go feral, altering the gene pool of the native plants.


The cannabis today is far different than cannabis smoked in history. The importance of Cataloging the cannabis genotype and Terpene Profiles is vital to help future generations experience today’s cannabis and retrace back to preferred strains. 

The Solution

The cannabis industry and world at large will hopefully share the responsibility to preserve the biodiversity of the cannabis species. This will include protecting the habitat, reducing feral cannabis populations and the harvest, export and import of wild or native cannabis plants or seeds to to recreate them locally through recombination. 

Additionally analyzing strains for genotypes, aromatic profiles and other traits will allow us to recreate variations if necessary.

By updating a genetic database and replicating the aromatic profile of cannabis varieties using analytical testing and utilizing terpenes sourced from other plants: Linalool from lavender, Myrcene from lemon balm or Limonene from oranges. We can trace steps to insure the plant’s future survival.

Hemp Makes Great Biodegradable Plastic

While hemp was previously produced in the U.S. for hundreds of years, its usage diminished in favor of alternatives. 

Hemp fiber, for instance, which had been used to make rope and clothing, was replaced by less expensive jute and abaca imported from Asia. Ropes made from these materials were lighter and more buoyant, and more resistant to salt water than hemp rope, which required tarring.

Improvements in technology further contributed to the decline in hemp usage. The cotton gin, for example, eased the harvesting of cotton, which replaced hemp in the manufacture of textiles.

Some of the earliest plastics were made from cellulose fibers obtained from organic, non-petroleum-based sources such as CBD biomass. The cost of these bioplastics was higher than traditional plastics.

As the industry shifted away from hemp products, regulation got stricter, making it less profitable than other less regulated materials. 

Today the industry is shifting back to Hemp Products. There are many advantages to hemp.  It is biodegradable, renewable and versatile.

Recent technology has opened the door to a new type of eco-friendly polymer. No longer reliant on petroleum, these bio-plastics are renewable, sustainable and often made using agricultural waste.

Hemp plastic will be a game changer for many industries especially consumer products.

Eco-friendly products ensure a more sustainable future.

3D printing 

Variety of processes in which material is joined or solidified under computer control to create a three-dimensional object. 3D printing is used in both rapid prototyping and additive manufacturing

Blow Molding 

Method of fabrication in which a heated plastic mass is forced into the share of a mold cavity by internal gas pressure.

Cast Film 

Is a film made by depositing a layer of plastic, either molten, in solution, or in a dispersion, onto a surface, solidifying and removing the film from the surface. Films can also be made from Extrusion.

Compression Molding 

The method of molding a material already in a confined cavity by applying pressure and usually heat. This process if often used in closure manufacturing.

Extrusion Molding 

Process in which heated plastic is forced through a shaping orifice (a die) in one continuously formed shape, as in film, sheet, rod or tubing

Injection Molding 

The process of forming a material by forcing it, in a molten state and under pressure, into the cavity of a closed mold. This is the most common production method used with Hemp Plastics.

Rotational Molding 

Molding process where pulverized resin is placed in the mold at high rotational speed to ensure resin dispersion. Once in place, the resin is baked in the mold to form the usable part. This process is used often to manufacture large, heavy plastic parts.


Forming process in which a heated plastic sheet is molded through heat and pressure and trimmed to create a usable product. This process is often used in multi-layer packaging.


Plastic that repeatedly can be softened by heating and hardened by cooling. In the softened state can be shaped. 90% of plastics are produced in this form.


Plastic that, after having been cured by heat or other means, is substantially, infusible and insoluble.

Transfer Molding 

Method of forming articles by fusing a plastic material in a chamber and then forcing essentially the whole mass into a hot mold where it solidifies.

Vacuum Forming 

Forming process in which a heated plastic sheet is drawn against the mold surface by evacuating the air between it and the mold.

New Generation Plastics

Though the cost of cannabis derived bio-plastic is higher, the environmental impact is vast. The rise in demand and environmental consciousness empowers use of extracted hemp biomass in the cannabis industry and beyond. 

Current plastic is destroying the environment, it is time to take a step back to protect the planet and give your product a competitive edge with biodegradable hemp plastic.

Active Compounds of Cannabis

Cannabis contains over 500 distinct compounds, which include cannabinoids, flavonoids, nitrogenous compounds, amino acids, hydrocarbons, enzymes, terpenes, and more. 

These compounds altogether contribute to the unique pharmacological function.


Responsible for the aroma of cannabis and other flowering plants. Studies have shown terpenoids to have diverse physiologic effects, and Terpenes may be contributing to the observed effects of cannabis. 


Cannabinoids are fatty compounds unique to cannabis, they are the main biological active constituents of cannabis. The most well known cannabinoid is delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC).

Cannabinoids exert their effect on the body by binding to receptors, specifically cannabinoid receptors types 1 and 2. These receptors, together with endogenous cannabinoids and the systems for synthesis, transport, and degradation, are called the Endocannabinoid System.

Nitrogenous Compounds

Display enormous structural diversity, they also have varying degrees of substitution and oxidation. The most noteworthy of these naturally occurring molecules are proteins, and most vitamins and hormones. Notably, an important nitrogenous compound is NO. NO is responsible for vasodilation, healing atherosclerotic arteries and preventing new development of arterial plaque.

Amino Acids

All with the exception of asparagine cysteine glutamine hydroxyproline and hydroxylysine are represented in various cannabis strains. 

Proteins and Enzymes

Proteins: edestin and zeatin

Enzymes: zeatin nucleoside, edeatinase glucoside, polyphenol oxidase, peroxidase and adenosine-5-phsphatase

Sugar Hydrocarbons

monosaccharide, disaccharide, polysaccharide, cyclitol and aminosugars are present and allowing for chemical reactions to take place.

Alcohols, Aldehydes, Ketones and Acids

There are seven simple aliphatic alcohols ranging from C1 to C16

12 aldehydes C2-C13

13 ketones C3-C18

12 simple acids, Aliphatic and aromatic

Fatty Acids

Polyunsaturated fatty acid

Most abundant linoleic,oleic stearic palmitic acids

Esters and Lactones

Typically found twelve esters and one lactone (2-C) in cannabis.

Due to lactone’s low molecular weight it is associated with palmitic and linoleic acids.


Eleven phytosterols were identified in cannabis belonging to sitosterol campesterol and ergosterol types. Phytosterols are steroid-like plant compound and have an hormonal effect on the body.

Noncannabinoid Nonflavonoid phenol 

Phenolic compounds have been shown to have antioxidant properties, while the flavonoids in cannabis, in particular, are anti-inflammatory, neuroprotective, and may help prevent and treat cancer. Phenolic compounds also determine plant quality, including flavor and colour. The type of cannabis strain and the ratio of phenolic compounds, cannabinoids, and terpenes contribute to the potency and effects of the plant when consumed.


Flavonoids are not unique to cannabis. Researchers have identified thousands of them all throughout nature, however, there are some that are found only in cannabis. These are known as cannaflavins. Similar to terpenes, flavonoids play an important role in both plant survival and serve many therapeutic effects.

Vitamins and Pigment

Vitamin k carotene and xanthophylls are reported in cannabis.

Interestingly, more than 2000 compounds are produced by pyrolysis during smoking of cannabis

 The Whole Process

Smoking raw THC distillate by itself is a limited experience. It won’t help become creative or inspired.

Aside from the aforementioned benefits, adding terpenes can reduce the viscosity of distillate or cannabis oil.

Typically, companies will use about 3%-10% terpenes in their oil or distillate mixture, so the terpenes also can help stretch out and make your product go further.

As a product manufacturer, adding terpenes to your product saves you money and enhances your product.

Cannabis Product Development

Terpenes are an integral part of cannabis and act on the body to produce many favorable effects. They help regulate the Endocannabinoid System and are used in an array of products. Utilizing terpenes in products requires several considerations.


Consumers who want more flavor, aroma and plant-based effects are looking for vape cartridges and infused products with terpenes added back in.

Typical Cannabis Extraction processes are geared toward separating out common Cannabinoids like THC and CBD from raw plant material.

As the more discerning cannabis consumer knows, something is missing when you vape or eat marijuana that lacks terpenes. For craft beer geeks, it would be like quaffing an India Pale Ale without hops.

Vape or edibles companies aiming to capture that consumer looking for the whole-plant experience should seek out firms that extract cannabis terpenes. A more limited, but less expensive, option is a botanically derived version.


What is the product aiming to do? How will Terpenes improve your product?

Terpene research specific to application and delivery method is essential.

Terpene source (cannabis versus botanical) will affect the product delivery. Botanical terpenes will allow for a wider market as it can be shipped worldwide.


Botanical terps are much cheaper to process and formulate, but they are limited in what they can achieve.

Most terpene formulations offer about 30-50 different botanically derived terpenes. By using scientific methods such as gas chromatography and mass spectrometry, formulators can isolate the strain-specific cannabis terpenes and produce similar formulations from botanical sources.

Extraction companies can source Myrcene and other terpenes from common plants or trees to build that flavor and aroma profile.

Physiologically, a terpene from cannabis or from clove oil, work similarly.

Botanical Terpenes

Why not just extract the terpenes straight from the cannabis plant?

It’s possible, and it’s arguably better to do it that way, but it’s far more expensive.

Comparing terpene profiles from botanicals to cannabis extracted. The complexity of cannabis extracted derived terpenes is greater than Botanically Derived Terpenes, however, the cost and scalability prohibitive.


Consistency is really important, customers get the same experience every time they use your product.

it’s difficult to create an exact, reliable terpene profile from cannabis. 

In order to gain customer loyalty consistency is essential.


Some people think of terpenes as simply flavoring or added aroma, but they also create a reproducible effect.

Terpenes produce calming, anti-inflammatory or pain management effects.

It is possible to re-create a product (vape pen) that gives your customer a specific, positive effect, every time.

Researchers are not able to identify everything that’s in the cannabis flower, but can identify what’s beneficial to somebody based on trial and error. Identifying and sourcing compounds is the first step in formulating profiles.

Terpenes Build Brands

Terpenes are not just a scent, they provide balance and build an experience for many types of products.

Proper research should be done during product development.

It is important to keep products consistently providing desired effects.

Cannabis companies can use terpenes to produce a specific, effects-based brand.

Botanical terpenes are cost efficient, consistent and scalable.

Cannabis Nomenclature

Different cannabis types and their derived consumer products are commonly referred to as ‘strain’ names. These names often relate to fragrance attributes conferred, at least in part, by terpenes.

Terpenes are strongly inherited and little influenced by environmental factors. Kush strains are predisposed to having high Myrcene concentrations. Terpene profiles have been widely used as biochemical marker in chemosystematic studies to characterize plant species,however, plants exhibit dynamic biochemical changes when attacked by diseases, herbivores or abiotic stresses.

Cannabis has a complex terpene profile, which is theorized to increase its therapeutic effects. Terpene profiling is used for both product quality testing and Strain Identification. These complex and sometimes problematic compounds are challenging to analyze, but experts have developed qualitative GC methodology for Terpene Profiling that fits easily into required laboratory workflows. To keep things simple, the GC terpene profile analysis.

Synergistic Effect appears to stem from the perception among cannabis users that different ‘strains’ have different physiological effects. There is no doubt that the large chemical space of thousands of plant terpenes and terpenoids includes many biologically active molecules. 

Various effects that are attributed to cannabis terpenes in humans require more research. While some of the effects of the Cannabinoids have been scientifically explained, there is a great deal of uncertainty about the effects of cannabis terpenes and metabolic pathways in humans.

Until recently, regulations have hindered research. Lifting some of the legal restrictions on cannabis, allows to build stronger scientific knowledge of the genomic, molecular and biochemical properties that define terpene and cannabinoid profiles in different cannabis ‘strains’, and supports the development of a well-defined cannabis profile classification. 

We are slowly beginning to fully understand the hidden benefits of terpenes so they can be utilized in a wide range of applications.

Cannabinoids for COVID-19

Recently it has been discovered that cannabis, specifically CBD, can dramatically improve and reduce inflammation caused by COVID-19 leading to organ failure in advanced cases. In contrast to steroids, which can also reduce the inflammation and suppress the immune system, cannabinoids can reduce the inflammation without suppressing the immune system. It may be possible to reduce the inflammation and enable the immune system to attack the virus.

The lungs are the organ most affected by COVID-19, causing pneumonia that rapidly progresses to acute respiratory distress syndrome and can further result in respiratory failure, septic shock, or multi-organ failure, and in the most severe cases death.
There is not much published research on the effects of cannabinoids on Viral Infections, but quite a bit of anecdotal evidence exists.

Endocannabinoid System

Cannabinoids, such as THC and CBD, have been shown to have pain-relieving, sleep-inducing, and anti-inflammatory properties. Terpenes play a crucial role in Regulation of the endocannabinoid system. Cannabis may help reduce body aches, ease inflammation of the airways, and increase relaxation and enable sleep. In addition antipyretic or fever-reducing properties, due to its ability to regulate the immune system.


The endocannabinoid system is responsible for intercellular communication.

Mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) are small particles that are created when stem cells get multiplied. 

Exosomes are lipid bilayer-enclosed structures, released by cells and involved in intercellular communication. Exosomes-inhibiting agents can sensitize and slow infection and even reduce cancer.

Recent in-vivo and in-vitro studies have demonstrated that exosomes derived from MSC can promote regeneration and improve immune reaction processes in damaged tissues. Exosomes contain anti-inflammatory agents that can target inflamed organs. 

Researchers have already successfully loaded exosomes with various molecules. They have also succeeded in treating different tissue injuries in animal models, while significantly reducing inflammation and pathological impairment. To date, there have been hundreds of publications and several clinical studies using exosomes globally, demonstrating their therapeutic potential at different applications.

Immune Response 

It is important to understand that exacerbation of the condition is due to the excessive immune response of the body against the virus. Cannabis compounds have the ability to lower the immune system’s response without suppressing it, thereby providing better complementary treatment than steroids, which completely suppresses the immune system.

Cannabis Research 

Medical cannabis companies are joining Biotech and Biomed companies in the race to develop a cure. Previous Research on the effect of the cannabis plant on human cells can accelerate the arrival of complementary treatment.

If cannabis succeeds as a complementary treatment, it will be an achievement for the industry.