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Feminized Seeds – All About Cannabis Seeds

Feminized seeds are seeds which have been created by breeding two Female Plants. It is a basic Ethnoecology

To create feminized seed a female pollen drop must be achieved. The pollen is collected and dusted onto other female plants. This pollination will always result in feminized seeds, as the female plant will not pass on a Y chromosome. Although there are mostly female seeds, some express male traits. If not caught early one plant can pollinate many other female cannabis plants.⁠

⁠When you pollinate the same Phenotype of a strain that you collected the pollen from that is referred to as backcrossing, sometimes denoted as a S1. Cross pollination of different strains is referred to as a F1 Reversal and denoted as F1R.⁠

⁠Inducing stress results in increased gibberelin hormone production inducing pollen drop. Breeding using colloidal silver to cause stress will pass on bad traits. A properly done reversal using gibberellic acid will not pass on bad traits such as hermaphroditism, rather, Enhance clone traits.⁠

⁠The goal is to increase gibberelin production while decreasing ethylene production. This will create the Right Conditions for the female plants to drop pollen without stress or passing on undesirable traits. A specialized solution is diluted with water and sprayed onto the plants, that process is repeated until pollen sacks develop. A reversal is never permanent. Changing the sex of the plant is only temporary and does not alter the DNA. Once you stop spraying you have roughly 6 weeks until the plant reverts back to female.⁠

While feminized seeds are cost effective, they guarantee near 100% female crops allowing for no male specimens to discard. Feminized seeds are not the appropriate choice if your aim is to produce seeds and Alter Genetic Strains.

Cannabis Genetics can get very convoluted on a macro scale but creating feminized seeds is relatively easy.

Cannabis Social Obligation: System Reform for a Greener Future

We don’t often write opinion pieces but we think it is important that this be said.

It is expected from an individual with a sound mind to act in a non destructive manner to their surroundings. 

Most laws consist of this concept. Do not Kill. Do not steel. Do not cheat. The harm done by these crimes is understandable and receives full support. 

When the traffic light came out the public was confused. There was not enough traffic on the streets to justify waiting at the red light. As traffic increased collisions began to occur and the need gained popularity.

As seat-belts were invented, there was debate regarding seat-belt obligation. This is when the basis of today’s laws becomes prominent. One side argued that the lack of protection causes no harm to a third party. The other side used macroeconomics to explain that though that particular individual was reckless toward himself and not causing additional harm to others, his surrounding suffers as the individual can not generate income. Socialized healthcare is spending additionally for recklessness. Simply the lack of productiveness is a crime by itself. 

This concept is harder for the public to accept. Easier to understand concepts have to be made to justify new laws. Most of the pre-1900 press references to cannabis relate either Medical Usage or Industrial Textile, in the early 1900s, you start to see major newspaper accounts of delirium or death. Later in the drug war, campaigns explaining the abuse caused by users and the damage done to society. The demonization of cannabis remains strong.

When the 2020 Covid-19 Epidemic first started people wore masks to protect themselves from the virus. Those who were not compliant did not. In an attempt to convince the stubborn leaders to approach the problem in a different manner, you must wear the mask to protect others. If you do not wear the mask you are selfish and are causing harm to others. Other reports such as the virus being airborne and contagion in pregnancy aim to propagate support but fail to pass large studies.

Many remain traumatized by the events that are occurring.

Studies show some combination of tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), cannabidiol (CBD) and many Other Parts of Cannabis create the desired therapeutic effect. 

We need more studies that look at whole plant cannabis because this is what people are using in addition to Cannabinoids. It is difficult to do good placebo-controlled trials with whole plant cannabis, but they’re still really needed.

In the meantime people should experiment and find a strain to aid their comfort. As in anything moderation is required. 

The world had two month of Quarantine to rethink its priorities. It seems like everyone is going forward regularly with some symbolic mask. It is time to make a Financial, Judicial and Environmental change based on social responsibility.

Social responsibility is an ethical framework and suggests that an individual has an obligation to act for the benefit of society at large.

It is time to legalize and deregulate cannabis and allow for Scalability in the market.

Commercial and Personal Cannabis Growing Guide

Light

Photons

Provides needed energy and used to produce sugars via photosynthesis 

Measured with photons/light intensity.

Classified by Light spectrum.

Plants use photons as an energy source needed to complete photosynthesis as they carry Energy proportional to their frequency.

Inverse square law states the intensity of light changes inversely to the square of the distance of the source

 I=1/d2

Mathematically, double the distance, energy will be ¼ intensity.

Cannabis light intensity 

Light intensity affects different processes within cannabis and can vary with condition. General growing intensities are as follows.

  • Seedlings and clones 200–400μmol/m²/s.
  • Vegetative phase 400–600μmol/m²/s, 
  • Flowering cannabis 600–1500μmol/m²/s

Light Spectrum

The entire range of electromagnetic radiation consists from various wavelengths which determine the color on the spectrum.

Generally plants use the photosynthetic active range (PAR) of spectrum.

Different chemicals react ideally to different light wavelengths.

  • Chlorophyll A (red,violet, blue)
  • Chlorophyll B (blue,orange)
  • Carotenoids (green,blue) help with eliminating free radical oxygen during photosynthesis to prevent cell degradation
  • Phytochrome (red/infrared) Signals plant to sleep or wake up  and causes florogen production. Has two states Pr (orange/yellow) and Pfr (red/infrared). Helps to keep cannabis in a vegitative state or to blossom.

Cannabis wavelength 

Cannabis prefers the following light colors.

400-460nm in vegitative growth

580-700nm in flowering

Photosynthesis

Photosynthetic cycle and the calvin cycle

6CO2 + 6H20 + (energy) → C6H12O6 + 6O2 Carbon dioxide + water + energy

Calvin cycle 

Does not need light only CO2

3 CO2 + 6 NADPH + 5 H2O + 9 ATP → glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate (G3P) + 2 H+ + 6 NADP+ + 9 ADP + 8 inorganic phosphate

Light Schedule

Cannabis requires 18-6 or continuous 24-hour light during vegitative growth period (little to no dark hours).

Cannabis requires a 12-12 light schedule during flowering.

it is important to keep the dark hours light-free.

Air

CO2 Oxygen osmotic potential

Internal pressure regulated by input and output of oxygen and water

CO2 used for photosynthesis and enters through the stomata.

O2 enters through roots and is a byproduct of photosynthesis.

Exists through the stomata. 

Temperature 

Vegetative Stage: 20-30°C range

Flowering Stage:  18-26°C 

Humidity

  • Clones 70%
  • Vegetative 40-60%
  • Flowering 40-50%
  • Final weeks of flowering 40-45%

Additional CO

The more light intensity the more CO2 cannabis plants need. Cannabis Can Use Up to 1500 PPM  COincreasing COconcentrations can increase yield. Only growers who benefit from added CO2 are those who desire quicker yields. 

Airflow

Always make sure to have air circulation around the plant.

Do not point the fan directly on your plants.

Water and Nutrients 

Water is used for photosynthesis, transpiration and mineral uptake

Water polarity and ph are vital for nutrient uptake.

Watering Cannabis

Watering less often and thoroughly is better than giving your cannabis a little water often.

Make sure to drench the entire medium completely.

Know that slightly underwatering your plants is always better than overwatering as it encourages root formation. 

Primary Minerals 

Cannabis essentially needs 13 minerals for growth

N,P,K,Ca,Mg,S,Fe,B,Zn,Cu, Mn, Mo, Cl

Macro-Nutrients 

Nitrogen, Phosphorus, Potassium (NPK)

Secondary and Nonessential Nutrients

Needed for plant actions and play i vital roll in cannabis’ life cycle.

Deficiency and Toxicity 

Mobile Deficiency shows on the older leaves first.

N,Mg Ni

Imobile Deficiency growth moves from the roots to final location start at the news growth. 

B, Ca, Mg, Fe, Cu, Fe, Zn

Nutrient Schedule

Vegetative Stage

N – P – K

3 – 1 – 2

Flowering Stage

N – P – K

1 – 1 – 2

Final Flowering Stage

N – P – K

0 – 1 – 2

Reduce Nitrogen two weeks after flipping 12/12 light schedule will assist in stopping the vertical growth (stretch) and result in a less leafy, smoother burning, and denser end product. 

Phytohormones

Primary hormones and their function phytochrome

Auxins responsible for cell direction and elongation

Cytokinin works with Auxins and is needed for cell division 

Gibberellins tigres seed to germinate

Ethylene in gaseous form make the responsible for maturation/calyx close up in cannabis

Abscisic protects plant from drought signals the stoma to close 

Florigen signals start of flowering

We can generally categorise the individual phytohormones as working to either promote, inhibit or otherwise affect growth in one way or another.

With correct genetics and epigenetic conditions, a typical grow does not need phytohormone intervention.

Mycorrhizal

Forms a symbiotic association between cannabis and a fungus. The plant makes organic molecules such as sugars by photosynthesis and supplies them to the fungus, and the fungus supplies to the plant water and mineral nutrients from the soil.

In addition to soil medium, cannabis can be grown in water. Lately new gel growing mediums have been developed that automates the growing process. In addition, automated growing tents help have tighter control while growing.

These are guidelines to help you grow your first cannabis harvest. Like any other science, botany consists of experimentation. 

Do not get discouraged, help shape future cannabis genetics. We love to hear your favorite growing techniques.

Ethnoecology of Cannabis

The cross-cultural study of how people perceive and manipulate their environments. 

Cannabis Classification 

Cannabis is classified in the plant family.

Likes to live in disturbed areas with some sunlight. 

Monecious plant that has male and female sex.

Females can produce hundreds of seeds when fertilized.

THC levels drop when fertilized, many growers use sinsemilla (without seeds) techniques that prevent fertilization.

Most molecular phylogeneticists consider Cannabis Sativa as the only species in the genus with many varieties & subspecies such as cannabis sativa, indica and ruderalis. 

Any given variety has various Cannabinoids Composition in the trichomes.

Cannabis Administration

  • Inhaled 
  • Swallowed and absorbed in the gastrointestinal tract
  • Absorbed through mucosal membranes
  • Absorbed through skin

Ethnobotanical Use of Cannabis 

There are numerous Active Compounds in cannabis 

Variety of different uses ranging from glaucoma to topical applications 

Botanical Medicine

Compound Delivery Methods

Transdermal Absorption 

Fighting Viral and Bacterial Infections

Parkinson’s Disorder

Ocular Pathology

Toothpaste

Biodegradable Plastics

Cannabis Anatomy 

Stem 

Cannabis pith (inner layer) is surrounded by a woody core called the hurd.

The hurd is a source for tough hemp fiber.

Node 

Growth points along the stem.

Cola

A cola refers to tightly clustered buds. Smaller colas occur along the budding sites, the main cola (apical bud) forms at the very top of the plant.

Stigma and pistil

The pistil contains the reproductive parts of the flower. Stigmas serve to collect pollen from males. They play an important role in reproduction.

Bract and calyx

A bract encapsulates the carpel (female’s reproductive parts). It is covered in resin glands which produce high concentrations of cannabinoids in cannabis. Enclosed by these bracts and imperceptible to the eye, the calyx refers to a translucent layer over the ovule at a flower’s base.

Trichome

Glands on the leaves, stems, and calyxes. Trichomes were originally developed to protect the plant against predators and the elements. These clear aromatic oils contain Terpenes and Cannabinoids like THC and CBD. 

Cannabis Origins 

Native Geography

Domesticated Eurasia 10000 years ago for various uses 

One of the oldest domesticated plant 

Hemp dyed with indigo dye was used for trading while others found other uses for the Cannabis plant.

Non-human dispersal methods

  • Terrestrial animals
  • Birds
  • Streams
  • Insects 

Selective Breeding 

Cannabis traits

Well adapted to live in Anthrome (biomes)

Used for Food, fiber, medicine, psychotropic effects

Human impact

Ecological traits- growing close to humans knowns as ethnoecology

Horticultural- encouraging desirable traits by direct hybridization 

There is a growing trend to grow CBD rich flowers in areas THC is still restricted.

Research is unveiling CBD’s potential and will over time have Genetic Outcomes.

We can not predict the role cannabis will serve in the future and how our intervention will impact future strains’ genetics, but there is still much research to be done to maximize cannabis’s potential.

Cannabis Marketing Explained

The cannabis industry has been expanding, new products, dispensaries, grow supplies and medical research are all gaining interest.

The legal framework is shifting almost daily does not stop investors, researchers, and entrepreneurs from entering the field. Exposure remains a hurdle on the way to Scalability

Advertising platforms are having a hard time keeping up with varying regulations. 

Paid advertising is either tricky or straight up impossible for many cannabis-related products due to the Terms of Service of many advertising platforms.

Top ranked positions now hold valuable growth opportunities as they allow for dedicated user following and monetization.

While the techniques often change, there are some concepts to keep in mind.

Keywords 

Simply think like your users, what would you type to find your content, what will your friends write if they were interested. Now envision your perfect user’s search intent.

Keyword research is not difficult. Just go for the keywords with low SEO difficulty and high search volume. 

User Experience

Load time

Everything is happening quickly, users demand fast load time. 

Interface 

How easy is it to navigate your site?

Does it get stuck?

Are there distracting popups?

Did you guide your user to the correct page?

Do forms require a specific input method?

Does the user gain benefit?

User behavior 

How long were visitors on site?

How often do they return to the site?

How many pages did they visit?

Did they perform a user action?

Added Value 

Knowledge convenience, affordability, quality and comfort are just some benefits that may be provided. Time is important. 

Domain Authority 

Backlinks

The more people mention you the more exposure there is.

Backlink Source : Are they themselves credible or in the same industry?

Backlink Activity: How active and relevant is the link?

A mark of quality is returning visitors, that indicates satisfaction. 

Domain History

The more active a platform the more potential for growth.

Domain age, volatility of ownership and prestigious affiliations to assess apparent prestige.

A business with a long active history is more authoritative.

These advertising principles apply to all online advertising methods. Automated Paid (SEM), Organic Search Optimization (SEO), Media Buying, and Social networks. Web presence is vitally important.

Before building an advertising strategy, check the terms of service of your platform and web hosting.

Every great startup needs people who believe in it.

Pinene: Medical BENEFITS and Chemical Characteristics Outlined

Pinene belongs to a bicyclic monoterpene chemical group and has two molecular forms: alpha-pinene and beta-pinene. The two are identical except for molecular arrangement affecting the optical rotation and accounting for their different characteristics and actions. 

In nature and in cannabis profiles, alpha-pinene is more prevalent than beta-pinene. 

Alpha-pinene

Alpha-pinene is responsible for the distinctive smell of pine needles in some herbs. Pinine is found in rosemary. It also accounts for the smell of pine oil, turpentine, and citrus peel. 

α-Pinene is highly bioavailable with 60% human pulmonary uptake with rapid metabolism or redistribution.

Beta-pinene

Beta form also plays an important role in protecting the body.

Beta-pinene contributes to the fragrance of many cooking herbs including oregano, parsley and dill. In cannabis, it usually occurs in smaller concentrations, and works synergistically with other terpenes to create complex interactions within the endocannabinoid system. For example, beta-pinene appears to play a role in the production of other major terpenes,such as Myrcene, Limonene and works to fight Viral Infections.

Several studies in recent years have revealed that pinene has a number of significant health benefits, including:

Terpene Source 

Pinene is the most abundant terpene in nature and is obtained industrially by fractional distillation from various sources. It assists other tepene formations and works within the Endocannabinoid System.

This terpene is the main constituent in turpentine.

Some other sources include,pine trees, juniperus , cypress cannabis and other aromatic plants.

There are many sources for these valuable terpenes as they are widespread throughout industrial processes and product development.

Industrial Use

High pinene Juniper is a major flavoring ingredient in gin

selective oxidation of pinene with some catalysts gives many compounds for perfumery and are used in cosmetics, bath oils and vaping products.

Historic Use

Juniper berry containing high concentrations of pinine is used widely in Traditional Medicine 

digestion problems including upset stomach,

The Greeks used Juniper as a purifying herb 

The ancient Egyptians used Juniper extensively as a medicine and also to embalm their dead. French nurses burned Juniper in hospital rooms to fumigate them.

During the middle ages 

By the 17th century Juniper was a popular diuretic (increasing urine flow). 

The Chinese, American Indians, and old European cultures of medicine all highly regarded Juniper as a blood purifying kidney tonic. 

The berries have been found efficient in gonorrhoea, gleet, leucorrhoea, cystirrhoea, affections of the skin, scorbutic diseases, etc. Pyelitis, pyelo-nephritis, and cystitis when chronic, and particularly when in old people, are relieved by juniper. Uncomplicated renal hyperemia (excess blood in the kidneys) was cured by it.

Current Treatments

Pain relief: 

Pinene can affect the body’s pain receptors to reduce discomfort and is particularly effective in easing pain associated with MS, arthritis, and fibromyalgia.

Antioxidant properties: 

Pinene can help to protect cells from excessive oxidation, which can cause apoptosis and make the body susceptible to a variety of diseases.

Anti-inflammatory features:

Pinene can reduce inflammation. Excessive inflammation can depress the immune system and stress cells and tissues.

Bronchodilation: 

Pinene can ease congestion and constriction in the lungs and bronchial areas, making breathing easier for people with asthma and other pulmonary conditions.

Anti-viral characteristics: 

Some laboratory research reveals that beta-pinene with limonene can be effective in killing the common herpes simplex virus.

Gastrointestinal system protection:

Pinene has been shown to protect the lining of the stomach and other parts of the gastrointestinal system against inflammation and lesions from conditions such as ulcers and Crohn’s disease.

Cognitive benefits

Alpha-pinene is active as an acetylcholinesterase inhibitor that reduces acetylcholinesterase activity to boost your memory. Cholinesterase inhibitors are commonly used to treat dementia. This feature could counteract short-term memory deficits induced by compound-related intoxication.

Skincare

Pinene is great for supporting skin health, studies suggest that alpha-Pinene may help keep the skin looking healthy and may help reduce the appearance of blemishes when applied topically.

Pinene in Cannabis

Pinene can inhibit the negative effects that come from consuming too much THC, such as short-term memory loss and feelings of fear and paranoia. That’s because it can cross the blood brain barrier and directly affect the behavior of neurotransmitters in the brain, including GABA, a chemical that modulates Mood, and the brain’s receptors for benzodiazepine medications.

While small amounts of alpha-pinene may result in health benefits, large amounts of alpha-pinene can be harmful. Large amounts of anything, can pose a threat to our health. Like anything else dosage is key.

The FDA has approved commercial alpha-pinene use in low-exposure levels in the cosmetic and flavor profile industries , so you won’t have to worry about providing healthy, safe products for your fans. Just follow dosing directions and seek the advice of a reputable authority if you are unsure about whether your alpha-pinene exposure levels are appropriate for your application. 

Chemical Properties 

Formula: C10H16

Molar mass: 136.238 g/mol

Density: 858 kg/m³

Boiling point: 156 °C

Chemical Structure 

Pinene Chemical Structure
Beta Pinene

Guidelines for Producing CBD/THC Vape Cartridges.

Most people get their Cannabis Vape cartridges from a dispensary or online retailer. No matter where the source, cartridges need to be filled before they are sold. A lot of cost is associated with the painstaking process of filling cartridges often one by one. If you have been wondering what the ratios for filling a full spectrum cannabis or CBD vape cartridge and what the process is, or just wanted to see a step by step guide for mixing and filling vape cartridges, you’ve come to the right place. In this tutorial, we’ll teach the mixing ratios of terpenes, Cannabis oil/Hemp oil, and Viscosity Booster and exactly how to fill a dab pen. We’ll be mixing and filling our pens from scratch using a tried and true process that there isn’t a whole lot of info online about. if you’re looking to start a vape pen company and need to know the first steps, read on as we break down the entire process for mixing and filling a vape cartridge at home.

Cartridge Filling Supplies

  • Cartridges
  • Viscosity Booster/Liquifier
  • THC/CBD Oil or concentrate
  • Pure Terpenes – Cannabis or Plant Derived
  • Hot Water Bath or – a Pot, Bowl, and stove top
  • 10ml Syringe with 14 Gauge Blunt tip
  • Alcohol wipes for cleaning
  • Metal Mixing Ramiken
  • Digital Scale
  • Gloves

Pure Botanical/Cannabis Derived Terpenes

Terpenes are credited with giving Cannabis a uniquely broad spectrum Effect . provide scents and tastes. New Technologies allow terpene infused products that will both capture the recreational cannabis audience and interest the health-conscious consumer. Some terpenes like Limonene increase energy while some terpenes like Myrcene promote relaxation. It is essential to choose a strain profile or terpene combination to support the type of feeling you would like to experience. Not only are there over 200 distinct terpenes that can be present in Cannabis but terpene profiles can often contain over 50 different terpenes in just one strain. Terpene scents range from earthy, pungent to gassy, or pinny, citrusy,and even fruity. Each consumer has individual preferences. It is recommended to experiment with different terpene profiles until you find one that fits you perfectly. 

Vape Cartridges

Having a quality vape cartridge ready for stores often starts with picking quality vape cartridge hardware. Cartridges these days are often prone to damage during shipping, leakage and even corrosion. It is crucial to extensively research everything to avoid unwanted interactions within the cartilage.

There are various styles to choose from depending on preference in design and the viscosity of your oil. Mouthpieces options include wood, ceramic, plastic, and metal. Tank options include various shapes and sizes. Cartridges usually come standard with a 2mm diameter intake hole which can be seen inside the cartridge tank. This hole is where your oil will enter to meet the atomizer which will atomize or “vaporize” your oil into an inhalable vapor. High viscosity oils are typically a sign of pure oil indicating that only terpenes were mixed in. When high viscosity oil is put inside a cartridge, it produces an air bubble that does not easily move when the cartridge is flipped upside down. Low viscosity oils produce a faster moving bubble and are typically made by blending viscosity booster/liquefier/diluent and terpenes with the Cannabis or Hemp oil. Low viscosity oils may require a smaller intake hole to prevent leakage but using a quality cartridge should prevent dilutions of up to 30%. You can use any concentrate by mixing it with a viscosity booster.

Viscosity Booster

Viscosity booster is a great way to control your potency and stretch your dollar. Viscosity Booster also makes for a smoother smoke as it allows the concentrate to be turned into vapor with less heat than the oil alone. While some users prefer to have the strongest cartridge available in their arsenal, others prefer to have a cartridge that produces a comfortable micro dosing effect. There are many viscosity boosters on the market which all do pretty much the same thing. When choosing a viscosity booster, it is recommend using one that doesn’t Include Vegetable Glycerin(VG), Propylene Glycol(PG), Polyethylene glycol(PEG) or any of the others commonly used in e-cig “Vape Juice.” Not only is viscosity booster for controlling your dosage, but you will also find that by following this process you will be able to double if not triple the amount of product you have at the perfect dose. Remember, this is about creating the perfect product for your needs. While someone may need 100mgs of vapor, it is not uncommon for some to need/want 10-20mgs.

THC/CBD Oil or Concentrate

The most important ingredient on the list should be the concentrate or oil you want to use in your vape cartridge. While it is recommended to use Cannabis/Hemp Oil (Distillate) for ease of use, it is also fairly simple to use concentrates like Rosin, Shatter, Budder, Sugar, Sauce, etc… As mentioned before, high-quality oil should be highly viscous but what if all you have is Shatter, Sauce or Rosin? Not to worry. You can easily heat and mix your concentrate with liquefier and terpenes while blending until the liquid is fully emulsified and ready for use in a cartridge. using VG, PEG, or PG when using a “Solid Concentrate” is not recommended as some separation may occur.

Other Supplies

This can get messy when you are a beginner. To make things easy and clean, it is recommended to use gloves, alcohol wipes, and fresh syringes. 

Process: How to Mix and Fill a Cartridge

The filling is often the messiest and challenging part for a first-time filler. Not only will you need to watch for spillage and waste but you will need to be careful not to overfill your cartridges. You will want to be vigilant about not going all the way to the very top of the cartridge as you fill. There’s nothing worse than doing all the pre-filling set up just to waste your product at the end. Some cartridges have a fill line, so you know where to stop while others don’t. In this process, you will learn to properly heat up your ingredients, mix Terpenes and Viscosity Booster with THC/CBD Oil then use a syringe to fill your cartridges. These instructions are for using 5mls(5 Grams) of oil. It is recommended to use milliliters when measuring for accuracy but using a scale that reads Grams will be just fine.

Step 1

Warm up your Oil or Concentrate to about 85-90 degrees Celsius 

Step 2

Check to see if your oil is warmed up – It is ready to go when the oil is fully liquified, and there are no chunks of concentrate at the bottom or floating around. 

If you are using a concentrate other than oil ex: Shatter, you will need to mix the concentrate and the viscosity booster with heat applied. A two to one ratio is a good place to start, but you can always add more concentrate to increase the potency and viscosity or more viscosity booster to lower the potency and viscosity. It really comes down to your preference.

Step 3

Take your liquified Oil or liquified concentrate mixture and add in your Terpenes and Viscosity Booster. If you already added Viscosity Booster because you are using a concentrate other than Oil/Distillate you can choose to add more Viscosity booster or leave it out completely. The ratio for terpenes and oil can be to your preference, but it is recommended doing 5-10% Terpenes and 5-10%Viscosity Booster for a total of 10-20%.the guide, we did 5ml (or 5 Grams) off full spectrum CBD Oil, 0.5ml of Terpenes, and 0.5mls of Viscosity Booster totaling 6mls(or 6 Grams) of finished product ready for use in a pen. Generally speaking mimicking the flower’s natural concentrations is the best approach.

Step 4

Blend/Mix all the ingredients very well. There should be no difference in color or viscosity throughout the entire mixture. The whole mix must be fully emulsified.

Step 5

Once everything is blended, you will want to suck it up with a syringe.

After the oil mixture is inside the syringe, it is ready to be poured inside the cartridge.

Step 6

The syringe should have volume marks reading in milliliters. You will put 1ml into a 1ml cartridge and 0.50mls into a half gram or .5 ml cartridge. Fill to the mark if the cartridge has one, if not fill the cartridge until it is nearly full with some room for an air bubble at the top. The air bubble is used by some people to gauge the potency of a cartridge. This technique works well for oil but does not apply to cartridges made with other concentrates.

Step 7

Once your cartridges are full, cap them tight and flip them over to “Rest.” Let them rest for 1 hour. During this period and air that was compressed and trapped during the cartridge filling and capping process will have the chance to escape out of the intake holes. Flipping your cartridge during the rest period will allow the air to escape without causing your cartridge to leak. This is a critical step!

Step 8

Using alcohol wipe or an alcohol-soaked paper towel, clean off the outside of your cartridge of any excess oil that may have been spilled onto it from a drippy syringe or overfilled cartridge

Test Product!

After your product has rested, test it out! 

Terpenes and boosters are tested extensively before sold to customers. Producing them in house is therefore very expensive. When using lab tested ingredients and working according to protocol your product is safe.

Start with small hits to make sure the ceramic coil or heating element is primed and ready for use. Priming your cartridge is a great way to ensure maximum flavor from start to finish without getting a burnt taste.

It is crucial to have the right equipment and knowledge before attempting to produce cartilages. 

Any unwanted interaction can be fatal.

If cartilages are made correctly they are a safe way to deliver accurate doses of cannabis.

Cartilages are designed to be customizable to preferences.

Phylogenetics- Hidden Characteristics of Cannabis

The cannabis that you smoke today is likely descended from cannabis ancestors that form the bedrock of the cannabis breeding pool since ancient times. The varieties referenced are not strains, but rather the entire groups cannabis strains came from.

Plants of the Cannabis genus are the only prolific producers of phytocannabinoids, compounds that strongly interact with the evolutionarily ancient Endocannabinoid Receptors. Cannabis has been cultivated not only for these compounds, but also for Material. Today, specialized varieties yielding high-quality textile fibers, nutritional seed oil, or high cannabinoid content are cultivated across the globe. However, the genetic identities and histories of these diverse populations remain largely obscured.

Cannabis History 

The cannabis species originated and was originally domesticated in Central Asia. The origin story and family tree has been often debated. However, botany leaders aim to bring some clarification to help save the ancestor of all modern cannabis. 

Phylogenetics 

The study of evolutionary relationships between groups of organisms, 

We have some basis for classifying plants according to their genetic similarities and trace ancestry. 

Cladistic System 

Relies on the presence of a single common ancestor. In this way, every clade (branch) of the phylogenetic tree contains the descendants of a single common ancestor. When many plants share a common ancestor, they are said to be monophyletic.

Genetic Origin

Cannabaceae includes roughly 170 species from 10 genera: Cannabis (hemp and marijuana), Humulus (hops), and eight genera that were formerly in the Celtidaceae (hackberry) family. Prior to the 21st century, the Cannabaceae family was only thought to include the Cannabis and Humulus genera. It wasn’t until recently that researchers merged Celtidaceae and Cannabaceae based on genetic evidence.

Cannabinoids 

One distinctive feature of the Cannabis genus is the production of a large diversity of compounds called Cannabinoids, they are so named because they are not produced in high levels in any other plant species

Additionally, the third subspecies of cannabis is cannabis sativa subsp ruderalis. Ruderalis is a wild variety that has low THC contents and is autoflowering or day neutral.

Nomenclature 

All modern cannabis plants are of the family and species cannabis sativa. For many in the cannabis industry Indica and Sativa have been the bedrock of how people communicate the morphology and subjective effects of the plant. However, science has begun to classify by chemovar. The terpene and cannabinoid profile in the plant is a better indicator of effect than the shape of the plant. The synergistic combination of compounds contributes to the Entourage Effect also known as the ensemble effect.

Human Interference

The biggest threats to these landrace cannabis varieties come from humanity. In the search for the best plants for effect, yield, resistance to disease and other characteristics humans have interbred these landraces. Thousands of years of widespread domestication resulted in unaltered wild cannabis plants disappearing. The cannabis plants that humans breed around the world have been heavily cross-bred and selected for certain traits, resulting in a complicated mixture of genes.

Biodiversity 

Genetic advances allow us to better select favorable traits. In doing so endemic species are often impacted through reduction in seeds for reproduction taken by humans for breeding or cultivation. Selective cultivation often leads to artificial selection for traits rather than reproductive fitness or genetic diversity. Overtime, these varieties escape domestication and go feral, altering the gene pool of the native plants.

Cataloging

The cannabis today is far different than cannabis smoked in history. The importance of Cataloging the cannabis genotype and terpene profiles is vital to help future generations experience today’s cannabis and retrace back to preferred strains. 

The Solution

The cannabis industry and world at large will hopefully share the responsibility to preserve the biodiversity of the cannabis species. This will include protecting the habitat, reducing feral cannabis populations and the harvest, export and import of wild or native cannabis plants or seeds to to recreate them locally through recombination. 

Additionally analyzing strains for genotypes, aromatic profiles and other traits will allow us to recreate variations if necessary.

By updating a genetic database and replicating the aromatic profile of cannabis varieties using analytical testing and utilizing terpenes sourced from other plants: Linalool from lavender, Myrcene from lemon balm or Limonene from oranges. We can trace steps to insure the plant’s future survival.

Marijuana: Neurochemistry &Physiology

After years of fierce debate, increasing amounts of objective, non- judgmental research is available although it is made difficult due to the complexity of the cannabis plant. Cannabis contains hundreds of different molecules. The plant is able to synthesize these cannabinoid compounds which is a family of 150 cannabinoids including the very well known compound THC. 

Though these compounds can affect many physical functions in the body, it is mostly used recreationally. 

Botany 

Cannabis has many strains with various terpene profiles, however, many botanists believe there are just three species of Cannabis plants. 

Cannabis sativa, a tall plant that is grown throughout the world. It can be cultivated to produce large amounts of THC, the chemical that produces psychic effects. It can be grown, as it has been for thousands of years, or indoors.

Hemp, a source of fiber for rope, concrete, plastic and cloth. Hemp plants contain minimal amounts of THC. they grow rapidly to large sizes and provide sustainable, scalable and eco-friendly material solutions.

Cannabis indica, a short pungent plant often called skunk weed, with high concentrations of THC and a distinct terpene profile. It is especially plentiful in India and the Middle-east though it can be grown anywhere. It is usually the source of hashish and other concentrates or extracts. 

Cannabis ruderalis, found mostly in Central Asia, but it has no use as a fiber and its psychic effects are minimal. In an effort to increase the plant’s potency, cannabis growers use the sinsemilla technique. This method prevents the female plants from being pollinated by the male plants thus increasing the concentration of THC. 

Brain Chemistry 

Stronger varieties of cannabis can produce distortions of time, color, and sound. As with other psychoactive compounds, cannabis’s botanical compounds mimic neurochemicals that exist naturally in the human body and brain. These internal brain chemicals are called endogenous cannabinoids or endocannabinoids.

The first one discovered was anandamide followed by 2 arachidonoylglycerol designated 2AG. Generally, there are 10 times the amount of anandamides in our body and brain as there are the endorphins. Anandamides are  involved in a huge range of functions, they work to modulate and modify, by either increasing or decreasing the sensitivity of our mind.

Anandamides, like all neurotransmitters, help transmit messages from one nerve cell to receptor sites on an adjoining nerve cell. This combination of electrical and chemical signals within the 100 billion cells that make up the central nervous system, help the brain communicate with the outside world through its senses and within itself through memories, emotions, and thoughts. 

Endocannabinoid System

So far, researchers have conclusively identified 2 types of receptor sites: the CB1 and CB2 receptors. The CB1 receptors are found primarily in the brain and their activation results in the psychoactive effects of cannabis. This is because THC mimics anandamide, the endocannabinoid that naturally activates these receptors. 

CB2 receptors are found throughout the body and are much more involved in changing the ocular pressure, heart rate, blood pressure, and pain sensitivity. 

By understanding the neurochemical and physiological effects of cannabis, it is possible to make better judgments about the possible cannabis use or refined cannabinoids for medical applications. 

By extracting and isolating these molecules from cannabis we can focus only on the ones that have the medicinal potential.

Cannabinoid Stimulation

Mood

One part of the brain rich in endocannabinoid receptors is the amygdala, found in the brain’s emotional center. A crucial function of the amygdala is to signal a sense of novelty particularly when one encounters a new situation, idea, or even new surroundings.  

As the amygdala is continually stimulated with THC, the CB1 receptors respond with delight. With excess use, these cells react to the overstimulation by retracting into the cell membrane and becoming inactive (self regulation). This process is known as down regulation. 

Once receptor sites are down regulated, it takes approximately two weeks for them to recover. This reversible process can help in fighting mood disorders.

Reward/Reinforcement Center 

Has high levels of endocannabinoids and CB1 receptors. When stimulated, a cascade effect bathes the core of this system, the nucleus accumbens, in dopamine, causing a feeling of accomplishment or gratification. These mechanisms are limited by tolerance.  

Memory

The highest concentration of cannabinoids in the body is the hippocampus. The hippocampus is involved in short term memory conversion to long term memory. 

Neurons produce endocannabinoids to shut off memory because we can not remember everything. When we overstimulate, it actually cuts down on the amount of short term memory and changes the frontal lobe activity responsible for decision making. Regulating cannabinoid receptors is key for future medical use.

Motor Activity

A third area of the brain that has very high concentration of cannabinoids naturally is in the basal ganglia and the cerebellum, involved in controlling motor activity to relaxe the muscles and reduce pain. Overall causes a decreased reaction time to situations and slows physical movements. This can be regulated by changing the affinity and concentration of cannabinoids in the system. 

Perception 

Generally there are two main cannabinoids, THC and CBD. these cannabinoids work synergistically and affect the ability to follow moving objects and effects the ability to carry out complex tasks. 

Appetite

The  endocannabinoids regulate appetite by the level of stimulation they cause in a set of CB1 receptors in the hypothalamus. By stimulating the receptors appetite is greatly increased. Research indicates that blocking selective CB1 receptor sites instead of stimulating them, causes a reduction in appetite and significant weight loss. 

Respiratory Effects

Cannabis alters  the immune defenses against infection. While smoking is always bad for the lungs, cannabis contains compounds that lower inflammation and fight bacterial infections.

Psychological Effects 

Cannabis has been reported to improve neurocognitive and psychiatric conditions, such as Alzheimer disease, anxiety disorders and bipolar disorder.

In addition, potentially reducing PTSD symptoms, cannabis also mitigates the propensity for inflammation and may be useful in psychological conditions that involve elevated inflammatory processes within the brain.

Effects

Cannabis works on the Endocannabinoid System. Compounds such as terpenes help change the affinity of the cannabinoids to the respective receptors. The medical applications are vast. As we understand more about various mechanisms in our body we uncover further benefits.

Hemp Makes Great Biodegradable Plastic

While hemp was previously produced in the U.S. for hundreds of years, its usage diminished in favor of alternatives. 

Hemp fiber, for instance, which had been used to make rope and clothing, was replaced by less expensive jute and abaca imported from Asia. Ropes made from these materials were lighter and more buoyant, and more resistant to salt water than hemp rope, which required tarring.

Improvements in technology further contributed to the decline in hemp usage. The cotton gin, for example, eased the harvesting of cotton, which replaced hemp in the manufacture of textiles.

Some of the earliest plastics were made from cellulose fibers obtained from organic, non-petroleum-based sources such as CBD biomass. The cost of these bioplastics was higher than traditional plastics.

As the industry shifted away from hemp products, regulation got stricter, making it less profitable than other less regulated materials. 

Today the industry is shifting back to hemp products. There are many advantages to hemp.  It is biodegradable, renewable and versatile.

Recent technology has opened the door to a new type of eco-friendly polymer. No longer reliant on petroleum, these bio-plastics are renewable, sustainable and often made using agricultural waste.

Hemp plastic will be a game changer for many industries especially consumer products.

Eco-friendly products ensure a more sustainable future.

3D printing 

Variety of processes in which material is joined or solidified under computer control to create a three-dimensional object. 3D printing is used in both rapid prototyping and additive manufacturing

Blow Molding 

Method of fabrication in which a heated plastic mass is forced into the share of a mold cavity by internal gas pressure.

Cast Film 

Is a film made by depositing a layer of plastic, either molten, in solution, or in a dispersion, onto a surface, solidifying and removing the film from the surface. Films can also be made from Extrusion.

Compression Molding 

The method of molding a material already in a confined cavity by applying pressure and usually heat. This process if often used in closure manufacturing.

Extrusion Molding 

Process in which heated plastic is forced through a shaping orifice (a die) in one continuously formed shape, as in film, sheet, rod or tubing

Injection Molding 

The process of forming a material by forcing it, in a molten state and under pressure, into the cavity of a closed mold. This is the most common production method used with Hemp Plastics.

Rotational Molding 

Molding process where pulverized resin is placed in the mold at high rotational speed to ensure resin dispersion. Once in place, the resin is baked in the mold to form the usable part. This process is used often to manufacture large, heavy plastic parts.

Thermoforming 

Forming process in which a heated plastic sheet is molded through heat and pressure and trimmed to create a usable product. This process is often used in multi-layer packaging.

Thermoplastic 

Plastic that repeatedly can be softened by heating and hardened by cooling. In the softened state can be shaped. 90% of plastics are produced in this form.

Thermoset 

Plastic that, after having been cured by heat or other means, is substantially, infusible and insoluble.

Transfer Molding 

Method of forming articles by fusing a plastic material in a chamber and then forcing essentially the whole mass into a hot mold where it solidifies.

Vacuum Forming 

Forming process in which a heated plastic sheet is drawn against the mold surface by evacuating the air between it and the mold.

New Generation Plastics

Though the cost of cannabis derived bio-plastic is higher, the environmental impact is vast. The rise in demand and environmental consciousness empowers use of extracted hemp biomass in the cannabis industry and beyond. 

Current plastic is destroying the environment, it is time to take a step back to protect the planet and give your product a competitive edge with biodegradable hemp plastic.