Category Archives: Product Development

Quantitative Cannabis Profiling Techniques

By understanding the theory behind analysis methods in the Cannabis Industry, we can talk about which are favored by cannabis labs and for what application.

Preferred Method

High pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC), usually paired with mass spectrometry (MS), is one of the most popular testing methods used to test for the potency and composition in a Cannabis strain or byproduct. 

In this process, cannabis products are mixed into a solvent solution and pass through an instrument filled with tubular tunnels. Matrices throughout these tubes separate the individual components by Polarity, Ionic Strength and Molecular Size.

High Pressure Liquid Chromatography

HPLC is a nondestructive method using liquid solvent to detect elemental composition. Heating is not necessary for HPLC. Heating cannabinoids cause a Decarboxylation Reaction whereby cannabinoid acids lose a -COOH group and transform biological function and potentially cause inaccurate readings. Cannabinoid Detection through HPLC will be more likely to give an accurate neutral-acidic cannabinoid profile than with gas chromatography (GC).

Mass Spectrometry 

MS is normally paired with chromatography methods as it is able to sort components by their mass-to-charge ratio and then give a readout as to the molecular composition. After the mixture is separated by how quickly it passes through the matrix, MS can detect the different components at each speed. More specifically, MS measures and separates components by their mass-to-charge ratio through processes involving ionization and being subjected to electric or magnetic fields. The results are then displayed as a spectra, which can be easily compared to known data to confirm your results. The mass spectrometer is also useful for the detection of pesticides, herbicides, and fungicides as well as residual industrial solvents.

Gas Chromatography 

In GC,  the sample is vaporized to the gas phase rather remaining in the liquid phase. This Method involves the use of heat and is better utilized to check for the presence of volatile terpenes or residual solvents. Flame Ionization Detection (FID) specifically generates ions through combustion of the sample material with a hydrogen flame. This generates differently charged ions based on the composition of  sample material and through quantifying these ions, various molecular compounds and their concentrations can be identified.

Using GC paired with (FID) and a headspace autosampler unit for uniform and efficient detection. It is possible to profile cannabis products and determine the Relative Potency effectively. 

It is important to note FID measures only organic species, while MS can measure inorganic and organic species. While both methods generate ions, MS can do so in solid, liquid, and gas phase samples using several ionization methods. 

Thin-layer Chromatography

TLC method, consists of stationary phase and mobile phase. Unlike previous methods this one does not rely on complicated instruments and utilizes basic chemical properties to provide an approximation of Cannabinoids. This method is visual, inexpensive and time consuming.  Extracted cannabinoids using solvent, apply them to the chromatography plate matrix, let the compounds separate, dye the plate, and see the resulting cannabinoid compounds. Using multiple results, develop a calibrated ruler.

Polymerase Chain Reaction

PCR amplifies a Specific Region of a DNA strand (Target) commonly used fluorescent dye binds double-stranded DNA molecules by intercalating between the DNA bases. It is used in quantitative PCR because the fluorescence can be measured at the end of each amplification cycle to determine, relatively or absolutely, how much DNA has been amplified. While PCR paired with a fluorescence is not ideal for mycotoxin detection it is increasingly popular due to recent automation of the process. 

New quantitative and analytical techniques are constantly developed directed towards cannabis research. Due to these techniques we are able to further biological understanding of cannabis. Understanding the main principles behind these techniques is crucial.

Dry Your Cannabis Crop: Curing Impacts Your Profitability

Cannabis companies have many challenges including Grow Techniques, Marketing Strategies, Product development, and Regulation Costs.

In order to scale a cannabis business the shelf-life and quality of the product is paramount. Producers must balance when preserving their product during times of lower supply:

Dry incrementally and lose yields to time, or dry quickly and lose yields to heat and attrition.

Drying Techniques 

There are several techniques with varying efficiency and quality. Drying quickly can burn off valuable Terpenes. In order to understand how to properly cure your cannabis flower lets understand how slow curing is achieved.

Natural Cure 

Cut down your plant, trim away extra fan leaves. You want to leave more in very dry areas. Cut off as much as you can in humid areas, to help speed up the drying process and prevent mold.

  • Dry (Under 30% Relative Humidity) – leave more leaves on your plant while trimming to help slow down the drying process. The more plant matter is left behind, the slower the buds dry. 
  • Average Humidity – perfect for hanging your cannabis upside down to dry
  • Humid (Over 60% Relative Humidity) –  separate buds from branches after trimming and place them on a drying rack or mesh to help them dry while avoiding mold.

Dry until outsides of buds feel dry to the touch, and smaller stems snap instead of bend prior to jaring. Remember to regularly inspect jared cannabis.

For perfect control over the drying process humidity and temperature control racks are available for purchase.

Heat Cure

Belt dryers primarily use hot airflow pulled from above via vacuum, creating localized air streams and wet spots. Tumbler and belt dryers are trendy but come with a few unfortunate set-backs. While some heat Decarboxylates Cannabinoids, high heat drying destroys volatiles, and consumes huge amounts of energy and space. 

One solution is a circular fluid bed-base. It is a relatively compact technology, and becoming a viable option for scaling. As a system, the fluid bed solution functions by intaking and shredding whole plants. The product is suspended over air-streams, increasing the surface area of product exposed to dry air, separating fibrous material, and packaging the extracted biomass into bulk bags. Blending Extracted Sprays are used to homogenize the flavor of smoking products prior to retail. Homogenization is important, unevenly dried hemp means extra degradation, moisture and microbes.

Freeze Cure 

Freeze the cannabis or industrial hemp to -35oC for over 10 hours to preserve the shape and integrity. The frozen product is placed under vacuum pressure in order to facilitate sublimation. Sublimation is a process during which a solid is turned into a gas, skipping the liquid stage in between. Controlled radiant heat is applied during this process, converting the frozen moisture in the product directly into vapor. The vapor is condensed back into a solid and collected in the ice bank. The ice in the ice bank is melted and drained from the ice bank in the form of a hydrosol liquid. Any terpenes lost in the sublimation process can be reclaimed from the hydrosol to be used in other processed terpene infused products.


CO2 Extraction 

Supercritical CO2technology delivers unparalleled terpene and cannabinoid Extraction capabilities. To perform this extraction, cannabis must be ground and placed into an extraction vessel. CO2 gas at high temperature and pressure is produced. A pump then forces supercritical CO2 into the extraction vessel where it meets the plant and breaks the trichomes allowing it to dissolve part of the plant material.

Solvent Extraction 

Solvent extraction is a process in which compounds are separated based on their relative solubilities. This treatment method involves using solvents with the ability to dissolve desired substance. The process of solvent distillation purifies the substance. Methods for extraction may vary depending on your equipment solvent and extraction goal.

High pressure extraction

High pressure extraction systems achieve high yields quickly. This extraction relies on thermodynamic principles to extract oils without the use of solvents. Biomass under 1.26 kg / s conditions cause the trichome rupture and produce shatter, cannabutter or cannabis oil. The moisture within the flower helps decrease viscosity so the oils can flow better.  The majority of lost terpenes and trichomes are captured and returned on batch-by-batch bases. This method retains more terpenes, CBD & THC.

Dedicated To Results

Each of the methods forementioned have advantages for specific applications and cannabis derived products. Techniques used for bulk whole flower without destroying the contents or structure of the flower are constantly improved and are able to dry diverse product evenly. As product development advances new technologies are utilized in the cannabis industry. For cannabis genetic conosures and producers there several ways to preserve and consume cannabis.

Now that cannabis is being grown in volume, the need for large scale processing with controlled and efficient curing protocols is crucial. Significantly improve bulk processing in cannabis.

Forms and Delivery Methods of Cannabis Isolates

Cannabinoid Isolates

Highly pure isolated cannabinoid. There are no other Cannabinoids, Terpenes and Flavonoids. Pure cannabinoid is highly concentrated and needs to be diluted prior to use. Cannabis is the only plant that produces cannabinoids safe for human consumption.

THC Isolate 


The most common cannabinoid referred to when talking about cannabis. THC interacts within the endocannabinoid system to alter physiology. THC Delta 9 will not crystallize but can be used in a chemical reaction to form crystalline product for various purposes. 

Delta -8

Delta-8 THC is a variation of delta-9 THC with some notable differences. While the two share many similar properties, such as reportedly stimulating appetite, reducing nausea, and soothing pain, delta-8-THC tends to exhibit a lower psychotropic potency. This cannabinoid is Extracted from Industrial Hemp Oil.

Methods of consumption include inhalation via combustion or vape,edibles, oils and topicals.

CBD Isolate

CBD isolate can be oil or crystalline form that contains 99% pure CBD and can be delivered using several methods for specific applications.


is absorbed by the mucous membranes and delivered directly to the bloodstream, bypassing the digestive system and liver to provide more immediate and effective relief. 

Topical Oil 

Used in various cosmetic, skincare and pain relieving creams for direct application to the area of treatment via Transdermal Absorption

For topical companies, it is fairly simple to incorporate CBD isolate to product lines, today many have the option to topically apply CBD to the area of treatment.


CBD isolate can be mixed with terpenes to create Enhanced CBD concentrates that can be vaped or dabbed. The isolate can also be made into crystal slabs that can be dabbed on a traditional oil rig. 


CBD isolates can mix with a variety of ingredients to create CBD-infused food and beverages.

CBD is not absorbed very well by the gastrointestinal tract, it has a low oral bioavailability. In order to increase bioavailability, CBD isolate can be dissolved in oil, increasing its chances of permeating the gastrointestinal system and reaching the bloodstream. 

Crystalline CBD can be measured and put into capsules or pills, allowing accurate ingestion and dosing. The final effect would be determined by the liver function. 

Terpene Isolates

These are highly concentrated terpenes Sourced from cannabis or other botanical. These terpenes have a wide range of industrial and medical benefits. Pure Isolates are very concentrated and are hazardous, however they have many benefits when at correct concentrations. 

Terpene Formulations

Terpene isolates precisely mixed at safe concentrations specifically for sensory and pharmacological effect. Some formulations mimic natural cannabis concentrations while others formulated for mental or physical effects. These formulations enhance and balance cannabinoids for individuals. Manufacturers use terpenes to create the flavors and scents of many everyday Products.

Full-spectrum Cannabis Extracts

Cannabinoids and terpenes work synergistically together to produce the desired effects on the endocannabinoid system. There is much R&D associated with producing full spectrum products. It is very important to choose the correct ingredients. 

Cannabis Concentrates 

Cannabis concentrates are products made by separating resin from the flowers in order to extract the maximum amount of cannabinoids and terpenes. Examples include: ShatterWax/Budder, CO2 Oil, Rosin, Kief, Crumble, Live Resin and hash

Cannabis concentrates stick to the natural concentrations of Active Cannabis Compounds.

Cannabis is diverse due to genetics and worldwide regulations, some want to homogenize the experience while others enjoy the diversity. No matter what your opinion is, Legalizion and Deregulation of this harmless plant is overdue. With deregulation much more research can be done which can impact many industries. 

A New Method to Enhance Smoking Materials


Blending sprays are used to homogenize the flavor of smoking products in the tobacco industry. 

A new application of this technology is capable of changing the main ingredients of smoking material.

Companies can provide the ultimate composition of the smoking material, achieving various desired goals. 


The secret to a great tasting smoking experience is consistency. Companies use blending to smooth out and remove product harshness to deliver a mellow flavored experience.

Now Cannabis Companies are adapting these techniques to provide a more consistent product and stubble onto breakthroughs.


Many consumers enjoy the effects and flavors Terpenes provide, but have no access to cannabis. Botanically derived terpenes formulated to cannabis strain concentrations is a technological breakthrough as they can be shipped internationally.

More customers can enjoy their preferred flavors internationally.


Flavoring Hemp, Cannabis or other smokable leaves is simple provided you use safe food grade flavoring, water and propylene Glycol/Cryo Butane. 

Once mixed in correct concentration/temperature and sprayed onto the dry leaf, the propylene Glycol/Cryo Butane traps the flavor into the leafs and evaporates, leaving the terpene flavoring intact.

Complementary chemicals can be added allowing for more control over the final product.



Keeping your product the same from harvest to harvest can be a bit exasperating , not to mention trying to keep up with product shelf-life, etc.

On an industrial scale keeping cannabis fresh and mold free is critical. Infusing a dedicated terpene formulation can extend the shelf-life.

Each curing formulation is precise and unchanged from season to season, reducing inconsistencies in the final product post curing.

Blending can improve many smokable products and provide consistency to cannabis companies that want to scale.

Post Production

Premixed terpene infusion products allow the consumer to infuse terpenes into their favorite smoke product.

DIY infusion kits allow cannabis strain terpene flavors to be sprayed on Damiana, Mullein, Hemp, Tobacco or Marshmallow leaves. Cannabis that has been sitting and degrading can be revitalized with fresh terpenes and cannabinoids.

Using these sprays cannabis compounds can be applied to hookahs, pipes and blunts.


Hemp (not psychoactive cannabis) is legal in many places. Unfortunately, hemp is grown for industrial purposes, taste is not a consideration. Infusing hemp with terpenes can balance and refine the smoking experience. The result is a nicotine free smoking product with all the favored tastes of cannabis without THC. Adding distillate to the terps and spraying on CBD biomass makes decent THC cannabis.

Infusing terpenes has implications on the entire industry from the consumer level to international corporations. As terpene infusion gains popularity, it paves the way to better and more efficient products.

Cannabinoid Toothpaste

An effective toothpaste requires Antibacterial  Analgesic and Whitening  properties combined with a flavorful brushing experience The use of terpene menthol in toothpaste is not uncommon. Using other compounds found in cannabis can improve current oral hygiene products.

Mint Terpene 

A mixture of Terpenes; the basic constituents of these formulations are L-Limonene, Alpha Pinene, Beta Pinene, Cineol and Octanol. It is a colourless, clear and transparent free flowing liquid and have Terpinic, characteristics and odour.

Cannabis Compounds

Other Compounds found in cannabis that can further improve toothpastes.


Cannabinoids have the potential to be used as an effective antibacterial agent against dental plaque-associated bacteria. Cannabinoids provide a safer alternative than synthetic antibiotics and reduce bacterial drug resistance.

We now know that cannabis possesses multiple antibacterial qualities. THC, CBD, CBC, and CBG have all exhibited an ability to fight various infections.

Cannabinoids CBD, CBC, CBN, CBG and CBGA  are better at wiping out colonies of bacteria and are considered a new class of antibacterial treatment.

CBG targets the cell membrane of gram positive bacteria and by itself is not effective against gram negative bacteria, which has an additional outer membrane, however a CBG  combination pokes holes in the outer membrane and allows CBG to reach the inner membrane to kill gram-negative bacteria. 

Streptococcus Mutant is gram positive and is the most dominant in creating cavities. Destroying it can prevent tooth decay, this can be achieved safely with canabinoids.


Antibacterial Properties

Although commercially available oral care products are considerably effective in maintaining the oral hygiene of the average population. Cannabis-infused mixtures halt the growth of bacteria better than the store-bought brands.

Anti-sensitivity Properties

Analgesic toothpastes currently use a local anesthetic called Benzocaine. Cannabis works on the Endocannabinoid System to naturally reduce pain. Oral administration is shown effective.

Cannabis based toothpaste utilize the pain reduction mechanisms of cannabis to prevent sensitivity.

Whitening toothpaste Properties

4% d-Limonene combined with Perlite whitening formulation significantly reduced stain scores both for smoking stain removal and inhibition.

Existing whitening formulations used peroxidase which is harmful to the dentine tooth cover. In addition, Peroxidase causes oxidative stress. Cannabis alternative toothpastes may therefore be less harmful. 


Terpenes have unique flavors and scents utilized in many products. Terpenes are active orally and can provide an enhanced brushing experience in various ways.

Mainstream Cannabis Toothpaste

Thoughtfully sourced innovative ingredients are waiting to be utilized by the broader audience.

In order to effectively prevent buildup of dental plaque, cannabinoids like CBD, CBC, CBN and CBG need to be further analyzed so they can be effectively used and targeted.

Concentrations are very important for product efficiency.  There is currently research aiming to determine the ultimate cannabis toothpaste formulation specific to individual use.

Shipping Terpenes

You should be aware that shipping research materials, such as terpenes, within the United States and abroad has become a highly regulated process.


The facility requirements for storing terpenes are no different from storing most other common chemicals. Proper care should be exercised and concern should be given to container compatibility, shelf life, and safety.

Shelf Life & Storage Conditions

Under ideal conditions, the shelf life of terpenes is 18 months to two years. Improper storage and handling can lead to reduced shelf life.

Store in a well ventilated area with proper sprinkler/fire deterrent system. Storage temperature should not exceed the flash point (110°F/43°C) for extended periods of time. Keep container closed when not in use. Air should be excluded from partially filled containers by displacing with nitrogen or carbon dioxide. Do not cut, drill, grind, or weld on or near this container; residual vapors may ignite.

The freezing point of terpene formulations vary around -96° C (-142° F). Exposure to extreme low temperatures should not affect the formulation or product quality; however at -78°C (-108°F) d-Limonene will become difficult to pump. It should also be noted that water – which is naturally present in trace amounts – might be extracted from the formulation if exposed to temperatures below 0° C (32° F). Freezing temperatures will not affect the integrity of the product but water may collect at the bottom of the drum or storage tank. If the drum is un-lined, the water may cause rust. This is rarely a storage issue in the phenolic-lined drums used by most companies.


It is recommended that all local storage safety precautions be followed. In many states, terpenes are not considered a hazardous material when stored in a warehouse in drums. When shipped by air or ocean, terpenes are considered a hazardous material and must be labeled accordingly. If terpenes are stored in drums marked with hazardous labels, local regulatory agencies may consider them hazardous. 


International legal landscape for cannabis derived terpenes is questionable at best. Botanically derived terpenes are shipped internationally, that being said some countries have notorious bureaucracy. Both export and import documentation needs to be attached including handling instructions, permissions and safety sheets. It is mandatory to purchase insurance on the package. For any issues feel free to Contact Us.


Always wear the appropriate personal protective equipment when handling essential oils, especially safety glasses and gloves. The best material for gloves, aprons, and goggles specific to handling terpenes are nitrile , although Viton and polyethylene film will also work.

When transferring from drums or tankers into smaller containers, braided PVC tubing will hold up for a while, but will eventually become rigid. The newer materials using halogenated polymers or fluoromers will work best for this use. Braided PVC or Tygon tubing will hold up for a while.

For clean-up purposes when a NIOSH filter is needed, always use an organic cartridge.

Chemical Companies recommend the use of grounding clamps whenever transferring liquids.

Shipping Regulations

International shipping regulations vary widely from country to country. If appropriate paperwork is not received by the customs official in the destination country, terpenes will not be allowed entrance.

Terpene Sources

There’s no perfect way to Extract Terpenes from organic sources. As with most things, it’s really a cost-benefit analysis – how do you eliminate impurities like fats, chlorophyll, and other plant metabolites without damaging the precious compounds you’re trying to preserve? There’s also the issue of time – the longer the process takes, the less efficient it is for commercial use and the more chances there are for impurities to work their way into the finished product. There are a whole host of methods and technologies that are used in pursuit of that goal. In order to isolate one needs to find a suitable source.


Aromatic Properties 

Fresh, strong, pungent and often sweet smell.

Main Source


Terpenes Produced 

Contains significant higher levels of the sesquiterpene β-caryophyllene and the monoterpenes linalool, 1,8-cineole and limonene. The following terpenes are also found; Linalol, Borneone, Methylchavicol, Camphor, Cineole, Citronella, Eugenol, Ocimene, Pinene, Limonene, Sylvestrene

Terpene Properties 

Caryophyllene is a bigger molecule, the unique molecular structure of caryophyllene allows it to easily bind to CB2


Pain-relieving properties


Aromatic Properties 

Warm-spicy, heavy-leafy, yet fresh-herb-like odor.

Main Source


Terpenes Produced 

Contains several important terpenes; α-Humulene14.2%, β-Caryophyllene13.8%, Dihydrocarveol 11.4%, α-Terpineol 11.3%, Terpinolene9.5%, α-Phellandrene9.1 %, β-Ocimene8.8%, p-Cymene8.8 8.4%, β-Myrcene 8.02%, Limonene8%.

Terpene Properties 

Myristicin serves as an anticholinergic, blocking the neurotransmitter acetylcholine from binding to its receptors in nerve cells, consequently inhibiting parasympathetic nerve impulses and  used for its pain alleviating and relaxing properties.


Parsley essential oil is used in aromatherapy and other similar applications due to its synergetic detoxifying, anti bacterial, anti fungal, digestive properties


Aromatic Properties

Camphoraceous aroma and a slightly bitter, earthy/musty, and minty notes. 

Main Source


Terpenes Produced 

Oregano oils to be found in laboratory tests are naturally distilled with an average concentration of  80% carvacrol present. Terpenes identified in the different species of oregano areThymol, γ-terpinene and p-cymene; while terpinen-4-ol, linalool, β-myrcene, trans-sabinene hydrate, and β-caryophyllene 

Terpene Properties

A natural monoterpene derivative of cymene. An inhibitor of bacterial growth,


Carvacrol is used as a food additive. Potent activator of the human ion channels transient receptor potential


Aromatic Properties 

Sweet, refreshing flavor accompanied by a cooling sensation and a distinctive scent with eucalyptus qualities.

Main Source


Terpenes Produced 

Dried peppermint typically has 0.3–0.4%m of volatile oil containing menthol 7–48%, menthone 20–46%, menthyl acetate 3–10%, menthofuran 1–17% and 1,8-cineol 3–6%. Peppermint oil also contains small amounts of many additional terpenes including limonene, pulegone, caryophyllene and pinene

Terpene Propreties 

Menthol is used practically everywhere and is praised for the results it brings to its associated products. 


Often used to relieve minor pain and irritation and prevent infection.


Aromatic Properties 

 Complex yet delicate, herbaceous and soothing woody connotation often described as earthy floral scent,

Main Source


Terpenes Produced 

Linalool, a-pinene, limonene, 1,8-eneole, cis-ocimene, trans-ocimene, 3-octanone, camphor, linalyl acetate, caryophyllene, terpinen-4-ol and lavendulyl acetate.

Terpene Properties 


Linalool is a monoterpene, it has a role as a plant metabolite and is produced by an assortment of plants. Historically used in traditional medicine for its sedative and anti-epileptic properties


Aromatic Properties 

Woody, pleasant, floral, lemony, spicy, green, herbal, cooling, and earthy.

Main Source


Terpenes Produced 

 ρ-Cymene 23–39%, β-Pinene 22–27%,γ-Terpinene 11–27%, γ-Terpinene 26.36  27.73%, Cuminal 8–17%,ρ-Mentha-1,4-dien-7-ol 1.0–5.5%, β-Myrcene 1.3–1.75%

Terpene Properties 

Pain-relieving due to its anti-inflammatory and analgesic properties.


Medicine and food purposes


Aromatic Properties 

Penetrating ,hot,woody and piney scent

Main Source


Terpenes Produced 

Terpene Propreties 

The interesting thing about this terpene is that it is a full agonist of CB2 cannabinoid receptors while having no interaction with CB1 and thus does not exert any psychoactive effects. 


β‐Caryophyllene & the Treatment of Neurological Diseases


Aromatic Properties 

Delicate sweetness and a mild aroma of nuts.

Main Source


Terpenes and Flavonoids 

Quercetin, Silymarin

silibinin, isosilibinin, silicristin, silidianin


Cynaropicrin, a sesquiterpene lactone, as a strong regulator of CD29 and CD98 functions


Reduces nausea and vomiting and lowers cholesterol (LDL).

Silibinin to treat liver disorders


Aromatic Properties 

Bitter, green herbal and  leafy scent.

Main Source


Terpenes Produced 

Borneol should be used in concert with medication targeting hippocampus or hypothalamus to exert its synergistic effect.

Terpene Properties 

Alkaloids, terpenes, saponins, tannins, steroids and flavonoids are believed to be responsible for the plant’s medicinal uses.


Aloe vera is most commonly used as a topical medication, rubbed onto the skin rather than eaten. Borneol has the unique ability to reduce both pain and inflammation.


Aromatic Properties 

Sweet, fruity, fresh and tangy aroma

Main Source


Terpenes Produced 

Limonene 94 Myrcene 2.1 Sabinene and β-Pinene 1 Octanal 0.4

Terpene Properties 

Limone works on the endocannabinoid system and helps regulate cannabinoid uptake by the receptors CB1 and CB2. Though it revolutionized many industries, new research is uncovering how valuable Limonene is.


Oil is antiseptic and anti-inflammatory which makes it an ideal ingredient in your skin and hair routine.


Aromatic Properties 

Clean, tangy and zesty aroma

Main Source

Geraniol, beta-Pinene

Terpenes Produced 

 Geranial, Neral, gamma-Terpinene, beta-Pinene, Limonene, Citronellal, Sabinene and Linalool. 

Terpene Propreties 


Aromatic Properties 

Sweet, estry, fruity and tangy 

Main Source


Terpenes Produced 

α-Pinene; β-Pinene, eucalyptol [as 1,8-cineol], Limonene, Linalool, α-Cubebene, Caryophyllene, aromadendrene, α-Farnesene

Terpene Propreties 


Aromatic Properties 

Sulfureous topnote  and herbaceous tones.

Main Source


Terpenes Produced 

Linalool, Geraniol, Nerol, Terpineol and Hotrienol.

Terpene Propreties 

Nerol and geraniol are the same substance sharing molecular weight and formula but behaving differently.


Widely used as an analgesic to relieve pain and is also an effective topical drug enhancer.

Some studies also say that it is used as an ingredient in Coca-Cola even though there are not confirmed reports on this.


Aromatic Properties 

Top notes of citrus accompanied by a tropical and deliciously sweet aroma

Main Source


Terpenes Produced 

car-3-ene, Limonene, α-Pinene, γ-Terpinene, α-Humulene, β-Selinene, Acetophenone, Benzaldehyde

Terpene Propreties 

Myrcene has powerful antibiotic, antimutagenic, analgesic, anti-inflammatory, and sedative effects.


Myrcene is an important intermediate used in the perfumery industry.


Aromatic Properties 

Juicy, nectarous, slightly sour and very fresh fruit note that evokes the tropical pineapple fruit.

Main Source

Many comercial terpenes are produced from pineapple. 

Terpenes Produced 

α-Muurolene 22.23-28.94%, Copaene 19.16% γ-Amorphene 10.87-19.65%, α-Cubebene 11%, δ-Cadinene 7.27%, β-Elemene 4.91, 3.92%, β-Selinene 3.66%, β-Caryophyllene – 2.58%, Sativene 2.35%, Cycloisosativene 1.55 2.28%, α-Terpineol 1.54%, Calarene 1.26%, Valencene 1.10%, α-Calacorene 0.99 1.32%  β-Cubebene 0.65%, β-Guaiene 0.58% 

Terpene Properties 

The name is derived from that of the Cade juniper, the wood of which yields an oil from which cadinene isomers were first isolated.


This Sesquiterpene is lesser used with many potential new applications  being explored

More Botanical Sources

There are many other Botanical sources and exotic terpenes out there. If you have been exposed to other interesting sources or extracted terpenes share with us so we can spread the knowledge.

Terpenes and Transdermal Absorption

Terpenes have the potential for enhancing percutaneous dermal absorption of therapeutic proteins which cannot be delivered orally due to their unique pharmacokinetic characteristics and stability issues. 

Transdermal Absorption

Over the years, transdermal delivery has become one of the favored routes of delivering therapeutics. It offers several advantages over conventional delivery methods.

Transdermal delivery bypasses the first-pass effect sustains release of drugs over a period of time, and offers better patient compliance.

Dermal Products 

Transdermal patches containing hormones are being studied by scientists all over the world to exploit these advantages. Transdermal patch containing gestodene and ethinylestradiol is a convenient non-oral contraceptive which showed sustained release. 

Many cosmetic products available in the market contain various proteins, such as keratin and kinetin as the active ingredient.

Skin Barrier 

Due to the barrier functionality of top most layer of the skin, dermal delivery of protein/peptide based therapeutics has been problematic.The stratum corneum is made up of dead cells which mostly consisted of lipids and protein keratin. These cells have the dual ability to absorb water and avoid loss of moisture. A drug has to pass through the continuous layer of intracellular lipids and intercellular proteins to reach the systemic circulation via the skin. 

Permeation Enhancers

Several methods have been used to overcome the barrier property of skin to accelerate the flow of proteins/peptides across the skin.

One technique used to increase permeability through the skin is the use of chemical penetration enhancers. The method involves the reversible and transient perturbation of barrier integrity of stratum corneum by using terpenes 

Various terpenes are used to increase the permeability of drugs through the skin barrier into the blood circulation. These compounds are known as terpene penetration enhancers.

Generally, the smaller terpenes are found to be more active permeation enhancers and are reported to disrupt stratum corneum bilayer lipids. 

relatively large, long chain sesquiterpene such as nerolidol reinforces the bilayers possibly by orienting alongside the stratum corneum 

Hydrocarbon or nonpolar group containing terpenes such as Limonene provide better enhancement for lipophilic drugs than do polar terpenes. 

Conversely, terpenes containing polar groups such as menthol and 1,8-cineole provide better enhancement for hydrophilic drugs. 

Although nonaqueous solvents generally destabilize protein, some with low lipophilicity can have an opposite effect,

Lipophilicity is a desirable property for enhancing percutaneous absorption but may not be a favorable factor for preserving conformational stability and biological activity of a protein. 

Terpene Enhancement 

The percutaneous enhancement capacity of terpenes can be related to their structure and nature of permeation. Generally, terpenes with relatively greater lipophilicity provide better enhancement for lipophilic permeants while those with lower lipophilicity for hydrophilic permeants.

Terpene Data

There is limited data on terpene effect on stability and biological activity of proteins which must be understood to make delivery systems efficient and successful. 

Terpene Research

By researching the effects of nontoxic terpene-based skin penetration enhancers, such as fenchone, carveol, menthol, cymene, terpineol, limonene, eugenol, carvone, farnesol, geraniol, and verbenone, on the conformational stability we can have an understanding of the structural characteristics of terpenes optimal for use in a transdermal formulation of protein.

The future growth of the cannabis industry

The cannabis sector is still figuring out what products will yield its future growth.


Edibles encompasses CBD-infused foods and beverages.

It is unsurprising as edibles have undergone a surge in popularity over the last decade. A growing wave of “recreational” consumers, who are interested in finding ways of ingesting cannabis without smoking. Studies have found that these consumers are typically more conservative than traditional cannabis users, and are likely to gravitate towards CBD products that are presented in familiar formats, such as infused confectionaries or beverages.

In the US, where CBD edibles have been legal and on the shelves for several years. Nevada, California, Colorado and Washington have already demonstrated an appetite for such products. These edibles are increasing popularity with American mainstream .

Experts are already predicting that CBD infused products will be one of the biggest trends to hit the Beverage Market in decades. This new trend is accompanied by rising demand for Water Soluble Terpenes.

Constellation Brands, already owns a third in Canopy Growth for $4 billion. While Molson Coors, teamed up with HEXO Corp to launch a line of CBD-infused beverages. They are are already equipped with the FDA regulation management.

Unfortunately, it’s not all good news, as the market also carries several risk factors which could potentially impede future growth.

One concern to the market is increased regulations. Regulators in the US have been expressing increasing concerns about the labelling, dosage and packaging of edible CBD products.

Another issue is the complex layers of taxation that can apply to such products.. Although this is not currently a critical issue, mismanagement could push consumers away from legal market.


The extracts market is rapidly growing.

The demand for edibles is good for extractors as they provide the formulations needed to produce products.

As we keep researching these cannabinoids, terpenes and flavonoids, the demand for these formulations grow. An increasing adoption of cannabis-based medicine as a treatment option is predicted to increase future growth.

Due to regulations, cannabis companies are operating in the pharmaceutical space have begun focusing their attention to extraction; rather than the traditional cannabis flower.

Patients suffering from numerous chronic diseases such as arthritis, Alzheimer’s, cancer, anxiety, depression, and epilepsy can now receive the appropriate dose according to their condition.

As companies evolve the taste of the consumer also changes. An increasing preference for extracts amongst recreational consumers coupled with technological advancements made vaping a popular delivery method.

Derivative products are popular, as they offer much higher margins than the cannabis plant itself.

Oils and tinctures are currently the largest revenue share for the cannabis market; due to their high availability and low price, followed by terpene isolates used to make oils and tinctures.

The most promising sector is full spectrum CBD (CBD with terpenes). As more people discover the potential of the entourage effect which maximises the therapeutic qualities of cannabis.


Cannabis concentrates are a condensed mass containing THC as its main component, and are commonly known as “dabs”. 

Concentrates are often referred to by many different names, such as; shatter, budder, hash, live resin, and hash oil. Concentrates can be consumed in a variety of ways such as joints, blunts, water pipes or edible products. They are most commonly sold in the form of vaporiser cartridges loaded with cannabis oil and terpenes.

concentrate cartridges could be the next gamechanger for the cannabis market.

The concentrates sector is more than twice the size of the edibles sector. Vape pens and pre-filled oil cartridges accounting for more than double the sales of other forms of cannabis concentrate such as shatter, wax and hash oil.

As regulations soften the popularity of cannabis edibles will inevitably be outpaced by the rise of the cannabis concentrates.

Edibles have begun to capture a greater share of the market, they are outperformed by concentrates..

Typical consumers of cannabis concentrate also differ rather significantly from those who prefer edibles. Data has shown that unlike consumers of edibles; who tended to be older and more conservative, cannabis concentrate users were found to be younger and display less risk aversion behaviours.

With new regulations edibles, topicals, concentrates and extracts will all become legal, which is good news for consumers looking for alternative ways to consume cannabis.

Perceived safety of edible will be a big draw for many new cannabis enthusiasts, as they view the products as being safer than smoking the cannabis flower.


It is important to remember. The cannabis flower, has been at the forefront of the industry.

Edibles, Extracts and Concentrates market get considerably less attention They can still offer a potential to accommodate cannabis investors. 

These sectors are becoming well established, but there are new delivery methods around the corner.

As we navigate the tough regulatory environment, there is no better time to get on the action.