Category Archives: Product Development

Test Your Cannabis at Home

The cannabis market varies dramatically from location to location. Some markets are over regulated while others operate in the shadows.

No matter the source of your cannabis, several analysis methods can be conducted at home to ensure an enjoyable smoking experience.

Primary Analysis 

Scent Inspection 

The first inspection that should be performed is a scent inspection. 

The overall first impression that forms the characteristic smell of the strain. It is important to listen to your body. 

Quality cannabis has earthy, herbal, woody scents with occasional notes of lemon or other fruits. 

Avoid buds that smell like hay or have no discernible smell. If it doesn’t have that characteristic dankness, you probably don’t want it. 

Pungency is directly linked to potency and Terpene Content. Make sure your cannabis smells appealing.

Visual Inspection 

Visually inspecting can reflect on growing conditions, processing and genetics.

Quality cannabis is primarily green in color, with a wide range of accent colors and undertones. Avoid buds that have inconsistent color with tan, yellow, red, or white spots. Inconsistent color is an indication of mold or pests.

Quality cannabis is trimmed by hand to preserve trichomes and buds. Generally cannabis appearance should be either tight and dense or fluffier with more pistils.

Avoid buds that haven’t been trimmed well or visibly mangled by a trim machine, this visual cue indicates improper Curing Procedures that may cause pathogens.

Quality cannabis is only produced by the female plant. 

Avoid buds with male characteristics indicating the plant was cultivated under stress, reducing the quality and changing Chemical Composition of buds.

Trichome density is relatively easy to distinguish with the naked eye. Quality buds will be covered in trichomes that sparkle like crystals in light. 

Trichome color indicates ripeness. Using a magnifying glass, inspect the trichome head to determine ripeness.  Differentiate prematurely harvested and over-ripened buds. 

Ideally, the trichome heads should be milky white, possibly with a hint of amber. If the trichome heads are clear, the plant was harvested prematurely, and if all the heads are amber, the plant was harvested after peak ripeness.

Taste Inspection

Just like anything we consume the flavor should be appealing. Your body is evolved to know what it desires and what can cause it harm. 

Quality Cannabis should have an enjoyable smooth flavor. Foul-tasting buds can be a sign of mold or mildew.

Avoid buds If you taste chemicals or metallics, there may be pesticides or other contaminants present. If you experience discomfort or any sort of unpleasurable flavor, discontinue use right away.

Additional Analysis 

Though not applicable for everyone, portable tests allow early detection and quality control of cannabis.

Potency Inspection 

Home testing kits allow you to use a small amount of cannabis to detect cannabinoid levels.Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC). Consists of easy sample preparation coupled with inexpensive, rapid and sensitive selection of both the stationary and mobile phases.

This approach does not achieve as clean a separation as Other Methods when it comes to polar compounds.

Until now, lab testing was the only way to assure potency and quality. Recently, reliable home testing kits are available to consumers and small scale growers.

Pathogens Inspection

Technological advances have made it possible to adopt lab tests into portable field detectors. 

Pathogens can be found by gene amplification and detection by the use of automated PCR designed to detect a variety of microorganisms found in cannabis.

Cannabis Inspection

Before consumption Smell the cannabis, visually inspect, and make sure the taste is apitable, do not consume any if you find evidence of mold. Additionally you may want to conduct further tests. 

When smoking you should enjoy a fruity, spicy, pungent, natural flavor, if you taste any chemical-like substance do not risk contamination. 

Additional Tip

When trying a new strain or batch of cannabis, always start with low doses and gradually increase according to preference. 

Cannabis 2.0

What is cannabis 2.0

Cannabis 2.0 refers to production and sale of edible cannabis, cannabis extracts and cannabis topicals including infused beverages, pastries, gummies and various other products.

Cannabis Edibles 

Orally ingested doses are processed by the digestive system and liver prior to entering the bloodstream. Ingested cannabinoids are absorbed slowly, have delayed effects and are metabolized slower compared to inhaling them. Most edibles contain a significant amount of THC, however, it is best to stick to natural. 

Product Transition 

Cannabis 2.0 enables to interest those who might not otherwise consume cannabis products. It allows companies to produce a consistent scalable product. 

As the industry grows, new supplementary industries develop.

The cannabis High-Tech Industry is developing around providing supporting services to Cannabis 2.0 producers.

These technological innovations require knowledge, experience, facilities and investment. Without the ability to sell higher-margin products, it would be increasingly difficult to develop new products.

Once production is optimized products can be shipped to consumers at relatively low costs.

Many new companies emerge supplying a wide range of products for recreational use.

The tax revenue generated by the industry can be utilized for rehabilitation from alcohol and painkillers.

Technology 

Traditionally, cannabinoids are decarboxylated and enter directly to the bloodstream via the alveoli during the smoking process. In order to produce the natural cannabis feeling, it is important to Profile the Constituents of cannabis smoke and engineer a formulation that would emulate those constituents after liver metabolism. Significant research is being performed to understand what the average consumer likes and why. 

The ability to efficiently isolate specific compounds is a vital first step in producing New Generation Products. There are various sources of phytochemicals that can be incorporated into Cannabis 2.0 products, including the most commonly known Terpenes.

Biotechnological practices make it possible to analyze, sequence and modify plants for optimum production. Research in the field is producing products like Home-Grown Cannabis test Kits and phylogenetic predictive software.  

Infusion Products Developed and tested allow restaurants, bakeries and coffee shops on local scale to serve fresh effect based sustenance to their customers. 

Profitability

Currently cannabis businesses have zero or no margin. Regulations make it difficult to expand and receive access to capital.

There is light at the end of the prohibition tunnel; customers are able to fulfil demand through legal channels including Digital Commerce.

New emerging products provide access to new and returning customers. 

Market 

Any product mass produced today has strict guidelines of production. It is important to set realistic Cannabis Regulations that balance safety needs with an open competitive market. Overregulation can create monopolies and cartels that hurt the consumer. 

Politics

While some argue that cannabis like coffee, alcohol and tobacco is damaging, it is part citizens’ autonomy and does not harm others or stomp productivity. International demand for homogenization and normalization of the cannabis industry is rising and many politicians plan on reflecting this view in their campaigns.   
Cannabis 2.0 is here to stay and opens up many opportunities and collaborations in retail/product development. If you are in the field or are interested in joining the cannabis market make sure to Reach Out.

Quantitative Cannabis Profiling Techniques

By understanding the theory behind analysis methods in the Cannabis Industry, we can talk about which are favored by cannabis labs and for what application.

Preferred Method

High pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC), usually paired with mass spectrometry (MS), is one of the most popular testing methods used to test for the potency and composition in a Cannabis strain or byproduct. 

In this process, cannabis products are mixed into a solvent solution and pass through an instrument filled with tubular tunnels. Matrices throughout these tubes separate the individual components by Polarity, Ionic Strength and Molecular Size.

High Pressure Liquid Chromatography

HPLC is a nondestructive method using liquid solvent to detect elemental composition. Heating is not necessary for HPLC. Heating cannabinoids cause a Decarboxylation Reaction whereby cannabinoid acids lose a -COOH group and transform biological function and potentially cause inaccurate readings. Cannabinoid Detection through HPLC will be more likely to give an accurate neutral-acidic cannabinoid profile than with gas chromatography (GC).

Mass Spectrometry 

MS is normally paired with chromatography methods as it is able to sort components by their mass-to-charge ratio and then give a readout as to the molecular composition. After the mixture is separated by how quickly it passes through the matrix, MS can detect the different components at each speed. More specifically, MS measures and separates components by their mass-to-charge ratio through processes involving ionization and being subjected to electric or magnetic fields. The results are then displayed as a spectra, which can be easily compared to known data to confirm your results. The mass spectrometer is also useful for the detection of pesticides, herbicides, and fungicides as well as residual industrial solvents.

Gas Chromatography 

In GC,  the sample is vaporized to the gas phase rather remaining in the liquid phase. This Method involves the use of heat and is better utilized to check for the presence of volatile terpenes or residual solvents. Flame Ionization Detection (FID) specifically generates ions through combustion of the sample material with a hydrogen flame. This generates differently charged ions based on the composition of  sample material and through quantifying these ions, various molecular compounds and their concentrations can be identified.

Using GC paired with (FID) and a headspace autosampler unit for uniform and efficient detection. It is possible to profile cannabis products and determine the Relative Potency effectively. 

It is important to note FID measures only organic species, while MS can measure inorganic and organic species. While both methods generate ions, MS can do so in solid, liquid, and gas phase samples using several ionization methods. 

Thin-layer Chromatography

TLC method, consists of stationary phase and mobile phase. Unlike previous methods this one does not rely on complicated instruments and utilizes basic chemical properties to provide an approximation of Cannabinoids. This method is visual, inexpensive and time consuming.  Extracted cannabinoids using solvent, apply them to the chromatography plate matrix, let the compounds separate, dye the plate, and see the resulting cannabinoid compounds. Using multiple results, develop a calibrated ruler.

Polymerase Chain Reaction

PCR amplifies a Specific Region of a DNA strand (Target) commonly used fluorescent dye binds double-stranded DNA molecules by intercalating between the DNA bases. It is used in quantitative PCR because the fluorescence can be measured at the end of each amplification cycle to determine, relatively or absolutely, how much DNA has been amplified. While PCR paired with a fluorescence is not ideal for mycotoxin detection it is increasingly popular due to recent automation of the process. 

New quantitative and analytical techniques are constantly developed directed towards cannabis research. Due to these techniques we are able to further biological understanding of cannabis. Understanding the main principles behind these techniques is crucial.

Dry Your Cannabis Crop: Curing Impacts Your Profitability

Cannabis companies have many challenges including Grow Techniques, Marketing Strategies, Product development, and Regulation Costs.

In order to scale a cannabis business the shelf-life and quality of the product is paramount. Producers must balance when preserving their product during times of lower supply:

Dry incrementally and lose yields to time, or dry quickly and lose yields to heat and attrition.

Drying Techniques 

There are several techniques with varying efficiency and quality. Drying quickly can burn off valuable Terpenes. In order to understand how to properly cure your cannabis flower lets understand how slow curing is achieved.

Natural Cure 

Cut down your plant, trim away extra fan leaves. You want to leave more in very dry areas. Cut off as much as you can in humid areas, to help speed up the drying process and prevent mold.

  • Dry (Under 30% Relative Humidity) – leave more leaves on your plant while trimming to help slow down the drying process. The more plant matter is left behind, the slower the buds dry. 
  • Average Humidity – perfect for hanging your cannabis upside down to dry
  • Humid (Over 60% Relative Humidity) –  separate buds from branches after trimming and place them on a drying rack or mesh to help them dry while avoiding mold.

Dry until outsides of buds feel dry to the touch, and smaller stems snap instead of bend prior to jaring. Remember to regularly inspect jared cannabis.

For perfect control over the drying process humidity and temperature control racks are available for purchase.

Heat Cure

Belt dryers primarily use hot airflow pulled from above via vacuum, creating localized air streams and wet spots. Tumbler and belt dryers are trendy but come with a few unfortunate set-backs. While some heat Decarboxylates Cannabinoids, high heat drying destroys volatiles, and consumes huge amounts of energy and space. 

One solution is a circular fluid bed-base. It is a relatively compact technology, and becoming a viable option for scaling. As a system, the fluid bed solution functions by intaking and shredding whole plants. The product is suspended over air-streams, increasing the surface area of product exposed to dry air, separating fibrous material, and packaging the extracted biomass into bulk bags. Blending Extracted Sprays are used to homogenize the flavor of smoking products prior to retail. Homogenization is important, unevenly dried hemp means extra degradation, moisture and microbes.

Freeze Cure 

Freeze the cannabis or industrial hemp to -35oC for over 10 hours to preserve the shape and integrity. The frozen product is placed under vacuum pressure in order to facilitate sublimation. Sublimation is a process during which a solid is turned into a gas, skipping the liquid stage in between. Controlled radiant heat is applied during this process, converting the frozen moisture in the product directly into vapor. The vapor is condensed back into a solid and collected in the ice bank. The ice in the ice bank is melted and drained from the ice bank in the form of a hydrosol liquid. Any terpenes lost in the sublimation process can be reclaimed from the hydrosol to be used in other processed terpene infused products.

Extraction

CO2 Extraction 

Supercritical CO2technology delivers unparalleled terpene and cannabinoid Extraction capabilities. To perform this extraction, cannabis must be ground and placed into an extraction vessel. CO2 gas at high temperature and pressure is produced. A pump then forces supercritical CO2 into the extraction vessel where it meets the plant and breaks the trichomes allowing it to dissolve part of the plant material.

Solvent Extraction 

Solvent extraction is a process in which compounds are separated based on their relative solubilities. This treatment method involves using solvents with the ability to dissolve desired substance. The process of solvent distillation purifies the substance. Methods for extraction may vary depending on your equipment solvent and extraction goal.

High pressure extraction

High pressure extraction systems achieve high yields quickly. This extraction relies on thermodynamic principles to extract oils without the use of solvents. Biomass under 1.26 kg / s conditions cause the trichome rupture and produce shatter, cannabutter or cannabis oil. The moisture within the flower helps decrease viscosity so the oils can flow better.  The majority of lost terpenes and trichomes are captured and returned on batch-by-batch bases. This method retains more terpenes, CBD & THC.

Dedicated To Results

Each of the methods forementioned have advantages for specific applications and cannabis derived products. Techniques used for bulk whole flower without destroying the contents or structure of the flower are constantly improved and are able to dry diverse product evenly. As product development advances new technologies are utilized in the cannabis industry. For cannabis genetic conosures and producers there several ways to preserve and consume cannabis.

Now that cannabis is being grown in volume, the need for large scale processing with controlled and efficient curing protocols is crucial. Significantly improve bulk processing in cannabis.

Forms and Delivery Methods of Cannabis Isolates

Cannabinoid Isolates

Highly pure isolated cannabinoid. There are no other Cannabinoids, Terpenes and Flavonoids. Pure cannabinoid is highly concentrated and needs to be diluted prior to use. Cannabis is the only plant that produces cannabinoids safe for human consumption.

THC Isolate 

Delta-9

The most common cannabinoid referred to when talking about cannabis. THC interacts within the endocannabinoid system to alter physiology. THC Delta 9 will not crystallize but can be used in a chemical reaction to form crystalline product for various purposes. 

Delta -8

Delta-8 THC is a variation of delta-9 THC with some notable differences. While the two share many similar properties, such as reportedly stimulating appetite, reducing nausea, and soothing pain, delta-8-THC tends to exhibit a lower psychotropic potency. This cannabinoid is Extracted from Industrial Hemp Oil.

Methods of consumption include inhalation via combustion or vape,edibles, oils and topicals.

CBD Isolate

CBD isolate can be oil or crystalline form that contains 99% pure CBD and can be delivered using several methods for specific applications.

Sublingual

is absorbed by the mucous membranes and delivered directly to the bloodstream, bypassing the digestive system and liver to provide more immediate and effective relief. 

Topical Oil 

Used in various cosmetic, skincare and pain relieving creams for direct application to the area of treatment via Transdermal Absorption

For topical companies, it is fairly simple to incorporate CBD isolate to product lines, today many have the option to topically apply CBD to the area of treatment.

Inhalation

CBD isolate can be mixed with terpenes to create Enhanced CBD concentrates that can be vaped or dabbed. The isolate can also be made into crystal slabs that can be dabbed on a traditional oil rig. 

Ingestion

CBD isolates can mix with a variety of ingredients to create CBD-infused food and beverages.

CBD is not absorbed very well by the gastrointestinal tract, it has a low oral bioavailability. In order to increase bioavailability, CBD isolate can be dissolved in oil, increasing its chances of permeating the gastrointestinal system and reaching the bloodstream. 

Crystalline CBD can be measured and put into capsules or pills, allowing accurate ingestion and dosing. The final effect would be determined by the liver function. 

Terpene Isolates

These are highly concentrated terpenes Sourced from cannabis or other botanical. These terpenes have a wide range of industrial and medical benefits. Pure Isolates are very concentrated and are hazardous, however they have many benefits when at correct concentrations. 

Terpene Formulations

Terpene isolates precisely mixed at safe concentrations specifically for sensory and pharmacological effect. Some formulations mimic natural cannabis concentrations while others formulated for mental or physical effects. These formulations enhance and balance cannabinoids for individuals. Manufacturers use terpenes to create the flavors and scents of many everyday Products.

Full-spectrum Cannabis Extracts

Cannabinoids and terpenes work synergistically together to produce the desired effects on the endocannabinoid system. There is much R&D associated with producing full spectrum products. It is very important to choose the correct ingredients. 

Cannabis Concentrates 

Cannabis concentrates are products made by separating resin from the flowers in order to extract the maximum amount of cannabinoids and terpenes. Examples include: ShatterWax/Budder, CO2 Oil, Rosin, Kief, Crumble, Live Resin and hash

Cannabis concentrates stick to the natural concentrations of Active Cannabis Compounds.

Cannabis is diverse due to genetics and worldwide regulations, some want to homogenize the experience while others enjoy the diversity. No matter what your opinion is, Legalizion and Deregulation of this harmless plant is overdue. With deregulation much more research can be done which can impact many industries. 

A New Method to Enhance Smoking Materials

Blending

Blending sprays are used to homogenize the flavor of smoking products in the tobacco industry. 

A new application of this technology is capable of changing the main ingredients of smoking material.

Companies can provide the ultimate composition of the smoking material, achieving various desired goals. 

Background

The secret to a great tasting smoking experience is consistency. Companies use blending to smooth out and remove product harshness to deliver a mellow flavored experience.

Now Cannabis Companies are adapting these techniques to provide a more consistent product and stubble onto breakthroughs.

Flavoring 

Many consumers enjoy the effects and flavors Terpenes provide, but have no access to cannabis. Botanically derived terpenes formulated to cannabis strain concentrations is a technological breakthrough as they can be shipped internationally.

More customers can enjoy their preferred flavors internationally.

Method

Flavoring Hemp, Cannabis or other smokable leaves is simple provided you use safe food grade flavoring, water and propylene Glycol/Cryo Butane. 

Once mixed in correct concentration/temperature and sprayed onto the dry leaf, the propylene Glycol/Cryo Butane traps the flavor into the leafs and evaporates, leaving the terpene flavoring intact.

Complementary chemicals can be added allowing for more control over the final product.

Consistency 

Production

Keeping your product the same from harvest to harvest can be a bit exasperating , not to mention trying to keep up with product shelf-life, etc.

On an industrial scale keeping cannabis fresh and mold free is critical. Infusing a dedicated terpene formulation can extend the shelf-life.

Each curing formulation is precise and unchanged from season to season, reducing inconsistencies in the final product post curing.

Blending can improve many smokable products and provide consistency to cannabis companies that want to scale.

Post Production

Premixed terpene infusion products allow the consumer to infuse terpenes into their favorite smoke product.

DIY infusion kits allow cannabis strain terpene flavors to be sprayed on Damiana, Mullein, Hemp, Tobacco or Marshmallow leaves. Cannabis that has been sitting and degrading can be revitalized with fresh terpenes and cannabinoids.

Using these sprays cannabis compounds can be applied to hookahs, pipes and blunts.

Application

Hemp (not psychoactive cannabis) is legal in many places. Unfortunately, hemp is grown for industrial purposes, taste is not a consideration. Infusing hemp with terpenes can balance and refine the smoking experience. The result is a nicotine free smoking product with all the favored tastes of cannabis without THC. Adding distillate to the terps and spraying on CBD biomass makes decent THC cannabis.

Infusing terpenes has implications on the entire industry from the consumer level to international corporations. As terpene infusion gains popularity, it paves the way to better and more efficient products.

Cannabinoid Toothpaste

An effective toothpaste requires Antibacterial  Analgesic and Whitening  properties combined with a flavorful brushing experience The use of terpene menthol in toothpaste is not uncommon. Using other compounds found in cannabis can improve current oral hygiene products.

Mint Terpene 

A mixture of Terpenes; the basic constituents of these formulations are L-Limonene, Alpha Pinene, Beta Pinene, Cineol and Octanol. It is a colourless, clear and transparent free flowing liquid and have Terpinic, characteristics and odour.

Cannabis Compounds

Other Compounds found in cannabis that can further improve toothpastes.

Cannabinoids

Cannabinoids have the potential to be used as an effective antibacterial agent against dental plaque-associated bacteria. Cannabinoids provide a safer alternative than synthetic antibiotics and reduce bacterial drug resistance.

We now know that cannabis possesses multiple antibacterial qualities. THC, CBD, CBC, and CBG have all exhibited an ability to fight various infections.

Cannabinoids CBD, CBC, CBN, CBG and CBGA  are better at wiping out colonies of bacteria and are considered a new class of antibacterial treatment.

CBG targets the cell membrane of gram positive bacteria and by itself is not effective against gram negative bacteria, which has an additional outer membrane, however a CBG  combination pokes holes in the outer membrane and allows CBG to reach the inner membrane to kill gram-negative bacteria. 

Streptococcus Mutant is gram positive and is the most dominant in creating cavities. Destroying it can prevent tooth decay, this can be achieved safely with canabinoids.

Effects 

Antibacterial Properties

Although commercially available oral care products are considerably effective in maintaining the oral hygiene of the average population. Cannabis-infused mixtures halt the growth of bacteria better than the store-bought brands.

Anti-sensitivity Properties

Analgesic toothpastes currently use a local anesthetic called Benzocaine. Cannabis works on the Endocannabinoid System to naturally reduce pain. Oral administration is shown effective.

Cannabis based toothpaste utilize the pain reduction mechanisms of cannabis to prevent sensitivity.

Whitening toothpaste Properties

4% d-Limonene combined with Perlite whitening formulation significantly reduced stain scores both for smoking stain removal and inhibition.

Existing whitening formulations used peroxidase which is harmful to the dentine tooth cover. In addition, Peroxidase causes oxidative stress. Cannabis alternative toothpastes may therefore be less harmful. 

Flavor 

Terpenes have unique flavors and scents utilized in many products. Terpenes are active orally and can provide an enhanced brushing experience in various ways.

Mainstream Cannabis Toothpaste

Thoughtfully sourced innovative ingredients are waiting to be utilized by the broader audience.

In order to effectively prevent buildup of dental plaque, cannabinoids like CBD, CBC, CBN and CBG need to be further analyzed so they can be effectively used and targeted.

Concentrations are very important for product efficiency.  There is currently research aiming to determine the ultimate cannabis toothpaste formulation specific to individual use.

Shipping Terpenes

You should be aware that shipping research materials, such as terpenes, within the United States and abroad has become a highly regulated process.

Storage 

The facility requirements for storing terpenes are no different from storing most other common chemicals. Proper care should be exercised and concern should be given to container compatibility, shelf life, and safety.

Shelf Life & Storage Conditions

Under ideal conditions, the shelf life of terpenes is 18 months to two years. Improper storage and handling can lead to reduced shelf life.

Store in a well ventilated area with proper sprinkler/fire deterrent system. Storage temperature should not exceed the flash point (110°F/43°C) for extended periods of time. Keep container closed when not in use. Air should be excluded from partially filled containers by displacing with nitrogen or carbon dioxide. Do not cut, drill, grind, or weld on or near this container; residual vapors may ignite.

The freezing point of terpene formulations vary around -96° C (-142° F). Exposure to extreme low temperatures should not affect the formulation or product quality; however at -78°C (-108°F) d-Limonene will become difficult to pump. It should also be noted that water – which is naturally present in trace amounts – might be extracted from the formulation if exposed to temperatures below 0° C (32° F). Freezing temperatures will not affect the integrity of the product but water may collect at the bottom of the drum or storage tank. If the drum is un-lined, the water may cause rust. This is rarely a storage issue in the phenolic-lined drums used by most companies.

Safety

It is recommended that all local storage safety precautions be followed. In many states, terpenes are not considered a hazardous material when stored in a warehouse in drums. When shipped by air or ocean, terpenes are considered a hazardous material and must be labeled accordingly. If terpenes are stored in drums marked with hazardous labels, local regulatory agencies may consider them hazardous. 

Shipping

International legal landscape for cannabis derived terpenes is questionable at best. Botanically derived terpenes are shipped internationally, that being said some countries have notorious bureaucracy. Both export and import documentation needs to be attached including handling instructions, permissions and safety sheets. It is mandatory to purchase insurance on the package. For any issues feel free to Contact Us.

Handling 

Always wear the appropriate personal protective equipment when handling essential oils, especially safety glasses and gloves. The best material for gloves, aprons, and goggles specific to handling terpenes are nitrile , although Viton and polyethylene film will also work.

When transferring from drums or tankers into smaller containers, braided PVC tubing will hold up for a while, but will eventually become rigid. The newer materials using halogenated polymers or fluoromers will work best for this use. Braided PVC or Tygon tubing will hold up for a while.

For clean-up purposes when a NIOSH filter is needed, always use an organic cartridge.

Chemical Companies recommend the use of grounding clamps whenever transferring liquids.

Shipping Regulations

International shipping regulations vary widely from country to country. If appropriate paperwork is not received by the customs official in the destination country, terpenes will not be allowed entrance.

Terpene Sources

There’s no perfect way to Extract Terpenes from organic sources. As with most things, it’s really a cost-benefit analysis – how do you eliminate impurities like fats, chlorophyll, and other plant metabolites without damaging the precious compounds you’re trying to preserve? There’s also the issue of time – the longer the process takes, the less efficient it is for commercial use and the more chances there are for impurities to work their way into the finished product. There are a whole host of methods and technologies that are used in pursuit of that goal. In order to isolate one needs to find a suitable source.

Basil 

Aromatic Properties 

Fresh, strong, pungent and often sweet smell.

Main Source

Caryophyllene 

Terpenes Produced 

Contains significant higher levels of the sesquiterpene β-caryophyllene and the monoterpenes linalool, 1,8-cineole and limonene. The following terpenes are also found; Linalol, Borneone, Methylchavicol, Camphor, Cineole, Citronella, Eugenol, Ocimene, Pinene, Limonene, Sylvestrene

Terpene Properties 

Caryophyllene is a bigger molecule, the unique molecular structure of caryophyllene allows it to easily bind to CB2

Uses 

Pain-relieving properties

Parsley

Aromatic Properties 

Warm-spicy, heavy-leafy, yet fresh-herb-like odor.

Main Source

Myristicin

Terpenes Produced 

Contains several important terpenes; α-Humulene14.2%, β-Caryophyllene13.8%, Dihydrocarveol 11.4%, α-Terpineol 11.3%, Terpinolene9.5%, α-Phellandrene9.1 %, β-Ocimene8.8%, p-Cymene8.8 8.4%, β-Myrcene 8.02%, Limonene8%.

Terpene Properties 

Myristicin serves as an anticholinergic, blocking the neurotransmitter acetylcholine from binding to its receptors in nerve cells, consequently inhibiting parasympathetic nerve impulses and  used for its pain alleviating and relaxing properties.

Uses 

Parsley essential oil is used in aromatherapy and other similar applications due to its synergetic detoxifying, anti bacterial, anti fungal, digestive properties

Oregano

Aromatic Properties

Camphoraceous aroma and a slightly bitter, earthy/musty, and minty notes. 

Main Source

Carvacrol

Terpenes Produced 

Oregano oils to be found in laboratory tests are naturally distilled with an average concentration of  80% carvacrol present. Terpenes identified in the different species of oregano areThymol, γ-terpinene and p-cymene; while terpinen-4-ol, linalool, β-myrcene, trans-sabinene hydrate, and β-caryophyllene 

Terpene Properties

A natural monoterpene derivative of cymene. An inhibitor of bacterial growth,

Uses 

Carvacrol is used as a food additive. Potent activator of the human ion channels transient receptor potential

Mint 

Aromatic Properties 

Sweet, refreshing flavor accompanied by a cooling sensation and a distinctive scent with eucalyptus qualities.

Main Source

Menthol 

Terpenes Produced 

Dried peppermint typically has 0.3–0.4%m of volatile oil containing menthol 7–48%, menthone 20–46%, menthyl acetate 3–10%, menthofuran 1–17% and 1,8-cineol 3–6%. Peppermint oil also contains small amounts of many additional terpenes including limonene, pulegone, caryophyllene and pinene

Terpene Propreties 

Menthol is used practically everywhere and is praised for the results it brings to its associated products. 

Uses 

Often used to relieve minor pain and irritation and prevent infection.

Lavender 

Aromatic Properties 

 Complex yet delicate, herbaceous and soothing woody connotation often described as earthy floral scent,

Main Source

Linalool

Terpenes Produced 

Linalool, a-pinene, limonene, 1,8-eneole, cis-ocimene, trans-ocimene, 3-octanone, camphor, linalyl acetate, caryophyllene, terpinen-4-ol and lavendulyl acetate.

Terpene Properties 

Uses 

Linalool is a monoterpene, it has a role as a plant metabolite and is produced by an assortment of plants. Historically used in traditional medicine for its sedative and anti-epileptic properties

Cumin 

Aromatic Properties 

Woody, pleasant, floral, lemony, spicy, green, herbal, cooling, and earthy.

Main Source

p-Cymene

Terpenes Produced 

 ρ-Cymene 23–39%, β-Pinene 22–27%,γ-Terpinene 11–27%, γ-Terpinene 26.36  27.73%, Cuminal 8–17%,ρ-Mentha-1,4-dien-7-ol 1.0–5.5%, β-Myrcene 1.3–1.75%

Terpene Properties 

Pain-relieving due to its anti-inflammatory and analgesic properties.

Uses 

Medicine and food purposes

Pepper 

Aromatic Properties 

Penetrating ,hot,woody and piney scent

Main Source

β‐Caryophyllene

Terpenes Produced 

Terpene Propreties 

The interesting thing about this terpene is that it is a full agonist of CB2 cannabinoid receptors while having no interaction with CB1 and thus does not exert any psychoactive effects. 

Uses 

β‐Caryophyllene & the Treatment of Neurological Diseases

Artichoke 

Aromatic Properties 

Delicate sweetness and a mild aroma of nuts.

Main Source

Cynaropicrin

Terpenes and Flavonoids 

Quercetin, Silymarin

silibinin, isosilibinin, silicristin, silidianin

Proprieties 

Cynaropicrin, a sesquiterpene lactone, as a strong regulator of CD29 and CD98 functions

Uses

Reduces nausea and vomiting and lowers cholesterol (LDL).

Silibinin to treat liver disorders

Aloevera 

Aromatic Properties 

Bitter, green herbal and  leafy scent.

Main Source

Borneol 

Terpenes Produced 

Borneol should be used in concert with medication targeting hippocampus or hypothalamus to exert its synergistic effect.

Terpene Properties 

Alkaloids, terpenes, saponins, tannins, steroids and flavonoids are believed to be responsible for the plant’s medicinal uses.

Uses

Aloe vera is most commonly used as a topical medication, rubbed onto the skin rather than eaten. Borneol has the unique ability to reduce both pain and inflammation.

Orange

Aromatic Properties 

Sweet, fruity, fresh and tangy aroma

Main Source

Limonene 

Terpenes Produced 

Limonene 94 Myrcene 2.1 Sabinene and β-Pinene 1 Octanal 0.4

Terpene Properties 

Limone works on the endocannabinoid system and helps regulate cannabinoid uptake by the receptors CB1 and CB2. Though it revolutionized many industries, new research is uncovering how valuable Limonene is.

Uses 

Oil is antiseptic and anti-inflammatory which makes it an ideal ingredient in your skin and hair routine.

Lemon

Aromatic Properties 

Clean, tangy and zesty aroma

Main Source

Geraniol, beta-Pinene

Terpenes Produced 

 Geranial, Neral, gamma-Terpinene, beta-Pinene, Limonene, Citronellal, Sabinene and Linalool. 

Terpene Propreties 

Apple

Aromatic Properties 

Sweet, estry, fruity and tangy 

Main Source

Alpha-farnesene.

Terpenes Produced 

α-Pinene; β-Pinene, eucalyptol [as 1,8-cineol], Limonene, Linalool, α-Cubebene, Caryophyllene, aromadendrene, α-Farnesene

Terpene Propreties 

Grape

Aromatic Properties 

Sulfureous topnote  and herbaceous tones.

Main Source

Nerol 

Terpenes Produced 

Linalool, Geraniol, Nerol, Terpineol and Hotrienol.

Terpene Propreties 

Nerol and geraniol are the same substance sharing molecular weight and formula but behaving differently.

Uses 

Widely used as an analgesic to relieve pain and is also an effective topical drug enhancer.

Some studies also say that it is used as an ingredient in Coca-Cola even though there are not confirmed reports on this.

Mango 

Aromatic Properties 

Top notes of citrus accompanied by a tropical and deliciously sweet aroma

Main Source

Myrcene 

Terpenes Produced 

car-3-ene, Limonene, α-Pinene, γ-Terpinene, α-Humulene, β-Selinene, Acetophenone, Benzaldehyde

Terpene Propreties 

Myrcene has powerful antibiotic, antimutagenic, analgesic, anti-inflammatory, and sedative effects.

Uses

Myrcene is an important intermediate used in the perfumery industry.

Pineapple 

Aromatic Properties 

Juicy, nectarous, slightly sour and very fresh fruit note that evokes the tropical pineapple fruit.

Main Source

Many comercial terpenes are produced from pineapple. 

Terpenes Produced 

α-Muurolene 22.23-28.94%, Copaene 19.16% γ-Amorphene 10.87-19.65%, α-Cubebene 11%, δ-Cadinene 7.27%, β-Elemene 4.91, 3.92%, β-Selinene 3.66%, β-Caryophyllene – 2.58%, Sativene 2.35%, Cycloisosativene 1.55 2.28%, α-Terpineol 1.54%, Calarene 1.26%, Valencene 1.10%, α-Calacorene 0.99 1.32%  β-Cubebene 0.65%, β-Guaiene 0.58% 

Terpene Properties 

The name is derived from that of the Cade juniper, the wood of which yields an oil from which cadinene isomers were first isolated.

Uses

This Sesquiterpene is lesser used with many potential new applications  being explored

More Botanical Sources

There are many other Botanical sources and exotic terpenes out there. If you have been exposed to other interesting sources or extracted terpenes share with us so we can spread the knowledge.

Terpenes and Transdermal Absorption

Terpenes have the potential for enhancing percutaneous dermal absorption of therapeutic proteins which cannot be delivered orally due to their unique pharmacokinetic characteristics and stability issues. 

Transdermal Absorption

Over the years, transdermal delivery has become one of the favored routes of delivering therapeutics. It offers several advantages over conventional delivery methods.

Transdermal delivery bypasses the first-pass effect sustains release of drugs over a period of time, and offers better patient compliance.

Dermal Products 

Transdermal patches containing hormones are being studied by scientists all over the world to exploit these advantages. Transdermal patch containing gestodene and ethinylestradiol is a convenient non-oral contraceptive which showed sustained release. 

Many cosmetic products available in the market contain various proteins, such as keratin and kinetin as the active ingredient.

Skin Barrier 

Due to the barrier functionality of top most layer of the skin, dermal delivery of protein/peptide based therapeutics has been problematic.The stratum corneum is made up of dead cells which mostly consisted of lipids and protein keratin. These cells have the dual ability to absorb water and avoid loss of moisture. A drug has to pass through the continuous layer of intracellular lipids and intercellular proteins to reach the systemic circulation via the skin. 

Permeation Enhancers

Several methods have been used to overcome the barrier property of skin to accelerate the flow of proteins/peptides across the skin.

One technique used to increase permeability through the skin is the use of chemical penetration enhancers. The method involves the reversible and transient perturbation of barrier integrity of stratum corneum by using terpenes 

Various terpenes are used to increase the permeability of drugs through the skin barrier into the blood circulation. These compounds are known as terpene penetration enhancers.

Generally, the smaller terpenes are found to be more active permeation enhancers and are reported to disrupt stratum corneum bilayer lipids. 

relatively large, long chain sesquiterpene such as nerolidol reinforces the bilayers possibly by orienting alongside the stratum corneum 

Hydrocarbon or nonpolar group containing terpenes such as Limonene provide better enhancement for lipophilic drugs than do polar terpenes. 

Conversely, terpenes containing polar groups such as menthol and 1,8-cineole provide better enhancement for hydrophilic drugs. 

Although nonaqueous solvents generally destabilize protein, some with low lipophilicity can have an opposite effect,

Lipophilicity is a desirable property for enhancing percutaneous absorption but may not be a favorable factor for preserving conformational stability and biological activity of a protein. 

Terpene Enhancement 

The percutaneous enhancement capacity of terpenes can be related to their structure and nature of permeation. Generally, terpenes with relatively greater lipophilicity provide better enhancement for lipophilic permeants while those with lower lipophilicity for hydrophilic permeants.

Terpene Data

There is limited data on terpene effect on stability and biological activity of proteins which must be understood to make delivery systems efficient and successful. 

Terpene Research

By researching the effects of nontoxic terpene-based skin penetration enhancers, such as fenchone, carveol, menthol, cymene, terpineol, limonene, eugenol, carvone, farnesol, geraniol, and verbenone, on the conformational stability we can have an understanding of the structural characteristics of terpenes optimal for use in a transdermal formulation of protein.