Category Archives: Medical Terpenes

Eucalyptol Properties

Cineol

This Monoterpene is a cyclic ether with a fresh, minty scent and a spicy yet cooling taste.

Uses 

Eucalyptol’s pleasant, spicy aroma and taste, is used in a variety of Products including; flavorings, fragrances, and cosmetics. Eucalyptus oil has natural antimicrobial and antiseptic properties used in household cleaning, natural pesticides and Mouthwash.

Source 

Eucalyptol is the dominant essential oil in eucalyptus trees. It is also commonly found in tea trees, basil, mugwort, rosemary, bay leaves, cannabis and Other Sources.

Metabolism 

Cineole, is used to increase blood circulation and relieve pain. It is fast acting, and able to cross the blood brain barrier faster than other cannabis terpenes. 

This positively charged terpene is able to cross the blood-brain barrier that separates the blood circulation from the cerebrospinal fluid. Its unique structure make it a potential drug delivery vehicle.

Antibacterial 

The antibacterial potential of cineole has been shown as an effective antibacterial agent; active against microorganisms in both planktonic and biofilm modes of growth. The terpene can be used as a natural remedy for infection associated with a wide range of microorganisms.

Anti-Fungal 

Cineole rich oil displays antifungals properties. Acting on a wide variety of common fungi. Further research has to be done to determine whether the activity is due to cineole or other terpene in the formulation.  

Anti-Inflammatory 

Cineole anti-inflammatory action has been used to treat various types of inflammation throughout the body including rhinosinusitis, pancreatitis, bowel disease, and Crohn’s disease. These diseases are characterized by inflammation of the digestive tract and ulcerative colitis. Eucalyptol has the potential to treat local and systemic inflammation.

Antioxidant 

Eucalyptol has demonstrated antioxidant properties and reduces the damage associated with cell oxidation and could potentially reduce aging by protecting against free radical damage.

Cancer

Recent studies demonstrated Induced cineole apoptosis, in two different types of leukemia. The studies demonstrate that eucalyptol has helped fight the growth of a type of cancer in humans. Researchers determined that treatment with eucalyptol is an effective strategy for treating colorectal cancer. Eucalyptol was not only anti-proliferative but also anti-cholesterol. Their results suggest that these effects work in unison to fight cancer. Linalool has also been shown to display these synergistic effects with cineole.

Alzheimer’s 

Alzheimer’s disease destroys memory through neuroinflammation. Studies have shown the anti-inflammatory effects of eucalyptol are strong enough to be a potential Alzheimer’s disease treatment.

Asthma

Inflammation induced asthma is common. Eucalyptol is known to be a very powerful treatment for asthma. Eucalyptol is a potential treatment for asthma and other lung inflammations. Researchers suggest multiple mechanisms as the source of eucalyptol’s anti-inflammatory properties and recommend cineole as a treatment for asthma. Therapy using cineole can lead to a noticeable improvement in lung function and health.

Tuberculosis

The effects of all the terpenes in Eucalyptus citriodora essential oil, and not just eucalyptol is considered to be weakly effective in alleviating the effects of tuberculosis. While this is not a cure, it may suggest that eucalyptus essential oil could be combined with other treatments for tuberculosis.

Insecticide

In addition to helping a wide range of health concerns, Eucalyptol has long been used as an insect repellent. eucalyptol is used to prevent potential health problems associated with pests.

Safety

While considered safe at natural concentrations, high concentration essential oil can be hazardous. 

Recommend inhalation and topical under 8.00% solution by volume.

May cause skin irritation.

The acute toxic potency of 1,8-cineole was relatively low (LD50 value = 3849 mg/kg).

It is recommended that all Safety Precautions be followed.

Chemical Properties 

Formula: C10H18O

Molar mass: 154.249 g/mol

Density: 922 kg/m³

Boiling point: 172 °C

Chemical Structure

Cineole Chemical Structure
Cineole Chemical Structure

Ginger and Its Constituents: Natural Aspirin and More

A new line of Terpenes

Ginger has been effectively used in Traditional Medicine. Research supports and substantiates its results. New findings are unveiling a wide range of clinical applications for phytochemicals found in plant-roots. More research can unveil many new benefits.

Specifically, ginger (Zingiber officinale) contains a mixture of Volatile Oil that consist mainly of monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes.

Gingerols

Gingerol is responsible for the pungent fresh aroma of ginger root.

Found in fresh ginger and activates spice receptors on the tongue.

Shogaols

The product of a dehydration reaction gingerol undergoes forming shogaols.

Zingerone 

Less pungent and has a spicy-sweet aroma.

The main sesquiterpene component of fragrant essential oil

Detectable amounts of bisabolene β-sesquiphellandrene, farnesene, β-phellandrene, cineol, and citral are also present in the terpene profile.

Cardiovascular

Serotonin is transported by platelets and released upon activation. This induces constriction of blood vessels and enhances platelet aggregation. 

Studies have demonstrated that gingerols inhibit COX-1 receptors, preventing serotonin release,subsequent platelet aggregation and clot formation. 

In addition,gingerol increases inotropic effect accompanied with vasodilation by acting on the beta receptors located on the cell walls in the heart and arteries. 

Though gingerol is a COX-1 inhibitor like aspirin, it does not cause gastric mucosal damage and bleeding. Ginger can prevent clot formation without risk gastric bleeding, acting like a natural aspirin. 

Pre-treatment with ginger followed by co-administration of warfarin did not affect warfarin pharmacokinetics. 

Digestion

Gingerol and shogaol class of compounds interact with several pathways directly responsible for nausea, vomiting and digestion. Ginger is a natural potent antiemetic (prevents nausea). These terpenes enhance gastric emptying and the associated effect for extended release formulations are still being studied.

Anti-inflammatory

Active Constituents of ginger have antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. 

Ginger extract directly suppresses chemokine (signaling proteins) production from synoviocytes, chondrocytes, and leukocytes.

Gingerol actively inhibits the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines on the Lipopolysaccharide outer membrane of gram negative bacteria stimulated macrophages.

These terpenes treat inflammation without interfering with the antigen presenting function of macrophages.

Anti-infection

Ginger directly suppresses chemokine and partially controls immune response. These terpenes may affect the minimal inhibitory concentration and exhibit synergy with antibiotics, since it was shown that treatment with gingerols increased bacterial Membrane Permeability and facilitated aminoglycoside entry allowing for a more effective antibiotic treatment. 

Anti-tumor 

Ginger terpenes exhibit anticancer activity against several types of cancers through cell rupture and apoptosis. Ginger is not a cure for cancer but understanding the mechanisms and pathways of function can bring researchers closer to treatment.

Terpene mediated Delivery

Gingerol is one of the many terpenes that can be used for more effective drug-delivery and bioavailability. Nonpolar terpenes such as Limonene provide better enhancement for lipophilic drugs than do polar terpenes. Conversely, terpenes containing polar groups such as menthol and 1,8-cineole provide better enhancement for hydrophilic drugs. 

Metabolism 

It is important to note that all the aforementioned effects noted are first-pass metabolism whereby the terpene concentrations are administered orally, pass the liver and get greatly altered prior to reaching the systemic circulation. Vaporization of terpenes is becoming increasingly popular globally.

Vaporization

A common delivery method is vaporization. This method allows accurate and direct dosing as regulated amounts of terpenes directly enter circulation prior to arriving at the liver, increasing bioavailability. There is not much literature regarding second-pass gingerol metabolism. Furthermore, how these particular terpenes interact with Cannabinoids need to be observed. 

Cannabis 

While some terpenes found in ginger are found in cannabis, gingerol is not found in cannabis. Gingerol class terpenes have synergistic effects in combination with cannabinoids. We do not know how these particular terpenes interact with cannabinoids as part of the Entourage Effect.

Chemical Properties

Formula: C17H26O4

Molar mass: 294.38 g/mol

Density: 1100 kg/m³

Boiling point: 353°C

Chemical Structure 

Gingerol

Pinene: Medical BENEFITS and Chemical Characteristics Outlined

Pinene belongs to a bicyclic monoterpene chemical group and has two molecular forms: alpha-pinene and beta-pinene. The two are identical except for molecular arrangement affecting the optical rotation and accounting for their different characteristics and actions. 

In nature and in cannabis profiles, alpha-pinene is more prevalent than beta-pinene. 

Alpha-pinene

Alpha-pinene is responsible for the distinctive smell of pine needles in some herbs. Pinine is found in rosemary. It also accounts for the smell of pine oil, turpentine, and citrus peel. 

α-Pinene is highly bioavailable with 60% human pulmonary uptake with rapid metabolism or redistribution.

Beta-pinene

Beta form also plays an important role in protecting the body.

Beta-pinene contributes to the fragrance of many cooking herbs including oregano, parsley and dill. In cannabis, it usually occurs in smaller concentrations, and works synergistically with other terpenes to create complex interactions within the endocannabinoid system. For example, beta-pinene appears to play a role in the production of other major terpenes,such as Myrcene, Limonene and works to fight Viral Infections.

Several studies in recent years have revealed that pinene has a number of significant health benefits, including:

Terpene Source 

Pinene is the most abundant terpene in nature and is obtained industrially by fractional distillation from various sources. It assists other tepene formations and works within the Endocannabinoid System.

This terpene is the main constituent in turpentine.

Some other sources include,pine trees, juniperus , cypress cannabis and other aromatic plants.

There are many sources for these valuable terpenes as they are widespread throughout industrial processes and product development.

Industrial Use

High pinene Juniper is a major flavoring ingredient in gin

selective oxidation of pinene with some catalysts gives many compounds for perfumery and are used in cosmetics, bath oils and vaping products.

Historic Use

Juniper berry containing high concentrations of pinine is used widely in Traditional Medicine 

digestion problems including upset stomach,

The Greeks used Juniper as a purifying herb 

The ancient Egyptians used Juniper extensively as a medicine and also to embalm their dead. French nurses burned Juniper in hospital rooms to fumigate them.

During the middle ages 

By the 17th century Juniper was a popular diuretic (increasing urine flow). 

The Chinese, American Indians, and old European cultures of medicine all highly regarded Juniper as a blood purifying kidney tonic. 

The berries have been found efficient in gonorrhoea, gleet, leucorrhoea, cystirrhoea, affections of the skin, scorbutic diseases, etc. Pyelitis, pyelo-nephritis, and cystitis when chronic, and particularly when in old people, are relieved by juniper. Uncomplicated renal hyperemia (excess blood in the kidneys) was cured by it.

Current Treatments

Pain relief: 

Pinene can affect the body’s pain receptors to reduce discomfort and is particularly effective in easing pain associated with MS, arthritis, and fibromyalgia.

Antioxidant properties: 

Pinene can help to protect cells from excessive oxidation, which can cause apoptosis and make the body susceptible to a variety of diseases.

Anti-inflammatory features:

Pinene can reduce inflammation. Excessive inflammation can depress the immune system and stress cells and tissues.

Bronchodilation: 

Pinene can ease congestion and constriction in the lungs and bronchial areas, making breathing easier for people with asthma and other pulmonary conditions.

Anti-viral characteristics: 

Some laboratory research reveals that beta-pinene with limonene can be effective in killing the common herpes simplex virus.

Gastrointestinal system protection:

Pinene has been shown to protect the lining of the stomach and other parts of the gastrointestinal system against inflammation and lesions from conditions such as ulcers and Crohn’s disease.

Cognitive benefits

Alpha-pinene is active as an acetylcholinesterase inhibitor that reduces acetylcholinesterase activity to boost your memory. Cholinesterase inhibitors are commonly used to treat dementia. This feature could counteract short-term memory deficits induced by compound-related intoxication.

Skincare

Pinene is great for supporting skin health, studies suggest that alpha-Pinene may help keep the skin looking healthy and may help reduce the appearance of blemishes when applied topically.

Pinene in Cannabis

Pinene can inhibit the negative effects that come from consuming too much THC, such as short-term memory loss and feelings of fear and paranoia. That’s because it can cross the blood brain barrier and directly affect the behavior of neurotransmitters in the brain, including GABA, a chemical that modulates Mood, and the brain’s receptors for benzodiazepine medications.

While small amounts of alpha-pinene may result in health benefits, large amounts of alpha-pinene can be harmful. Large amounts of anything, can pose a threat to our health. Like anything else dosage is key.

The FDA has approved commercial alpha-pinene use in low-exposure levels in the cosmetic and flavor profile industries , so you won’t have to worry about providing healthy, safe products for your fans. Just follow dosing directions and seek the advice of a reputable authority if you are unsure about whether your alpha-pinene exposure levels are appropriate for your application. 

Chemical Properties 

Formula: C10H16

Molar mass: 136.238 g/mol

Density: 858 kg/m³

Boiling point: 156 °C

Chemical Structure 

Pinene Chemical Structure
Beta Pinene

Myrcene Profile

Myrcene derives its name from a Brazilian medicinal shrub called myrcia sphaerocarpa.

The scent is characterized by its earthy, musky, clove-like and pungent. Aside from cannabis, it can be found in basil, mangoes and other plants . The unique therapeutic effects may contribute meaningfully to the Entourage Effect. Myrcene synergizes the activities of terpenes and other compounds in a variety of ways.

Sedative Effects

Myrcene shows anxiolytic and hypnotic effects upon inhaled administration, however, hypnotic effect by oral supplementation has not been determined yet. 

Myrcene and α-Pinene increase GABAA receptor activity in cell experiments. 

Analgesic Effects 

Myrcene analgesic and anti-inflammatory actions can be attributed to reduction of peripheral nociception by inhibition of prostaglandin release. In other words, it helps to reduce the perception of pain by helping to stimulate opioid receptor assisting in pain relief.

Anti-Nociceptive Effects

It appears that Myrcene lowers resistance across the blood brain barrier, improving permeability, so that β-myrcene itself and many other chemicals (including the analgesic THC) may cross the barrier more effectively.

Anti-Inflammatory Effects

Myrcene could inhibit the LPS-induced inflammation, including cell migration, which is a key feature of pleurisy and generally of inflammatory response. β-myrcene was found to have immunoregulatory activity, inhibiting the production of nitrogen oxide (NO), as well as cytokines Interferon gamma (IFNγ) and Interleukin-4 (IL-4), which is normally overproduced during excessive inflammation.

Anti-Diabetes Effects

Shown to improve glucose tolerance in diabetics without effects on glucose level in non-diabetics. This means that myrcene can be used as preventative medicine.

It is important to understand that effective treatment for diabetes and hypertension are preliminary and need further research.

Anti-Mutagenic Effects

Myrcene is an organic compound with anti-mutagenic properties. It reduced the toxic and mutagenic effects of a form and reduced the medication’s ability to induce sister chromatid exchange (SCE). The abnormal occurrence of SCE is a potential marker for cancer.

Myrcene’s inhibition of the liver enzyme CYP2B1 is responsible for these anti-mutagen effects. Myrcene also mitigates DNA damage from toxins. 

Hypertension

Myrcene has also been used for many years as a folk remedy for diabetes.

Monoterpenes also produce significant effects on the cardiovascular system, promoting, among other actions, vasorelaxation, decreased heart rate, and hypertension.

Improves Immune Function

Myrcene has been found to improve immune function by inhibiting the production of nitrogen oxide in immune cells, returning elevated stress levels in the immune system to near-normal. Further research is needed to fully understand myrcene’s mechanisms and interactions.

Safety 

The terpene is not classified as dangerous in unconcentrated form. The flavor poses no hazards under normal conditions of handling and usage. If misused in its concentrated form, the flavor may be harmful to health.  It is very important to know precisely the concentration for each application and delivery method.

Storage

Keep the container tightly sealed. Store in a cool, dry, secure, flammable storage area away from all sources of ignition. Protect from light, avoid uncoated metal containers, and keep air contact to a minimum. Incompatible with strong oxidizing agents, acids and bases. Avoid extended storage by using as soon as possible within designated shelf life.

Chemical Properties 

Formula: C10H16

Molar mass: 136.23 g/mol

Density: 794 kg/m³

Boiling point: 167 °C

Chemical Structure

Humulene Terpene Profile

Common Cannabis Terpene

Humulene, along with Caryophyllene and Limonene, is one of the most common cannabis terpenes. Humulene shares another connection with caryophyllene: Both are present in the hops found in beer. 

Humulene Origin 

The therapeutic usage of the humulene terpene traces back to ancient Chinese apothecaries that employed high dosages of the terpene in their Remedies. Even today, Chinese ginseng, which contains humulene, is used for many purposes, notably as an energy booster and a natural antibiotic. 

Humulene source

Was first found in the Essential Oils of humulus lupulus (or common hops). Chances are you have had a sensory encounter with the humulene terpene. It is present in plants such as marsh elders, tobacco and cannabis. Many herbs and spices contain humulene, including sage, ginseng, and coriander.

Humulene Scent and Flavor 

Humulene scent is earthy, wood-like and pungent aroma.

It provides a flavorful bite that is popular in Asian cuisine. Similarly, humulene is credited for giving beer its bitter flavor, thanks to the terpene’s abundance in hops.

Therapeutic Effects of Humulene

Scientific studies have investigated whether humulene effects include anti-inflammatory, antitumor, and other medical benefits. Results have been encouraging, but further research is needed to establish a solid relationship between humulene and improved health outcomes.

Anti-inflammatory

Many terpenes present in cannabis, have shown promise in treating inflammatory conditions. Humulene is among the terpenes that may exhibit anti-inflammatory action.

This terpene might represent an important tool for the management and treatment of inflammatory diseases.

The effectiveness of oral humulene was further confirmed by a study which demonstrated that humulene is absorbed when it is Applied Topically

Humulene possesses both topical and systemic anti-inflammatory properties and is helpful in treating Arthritis, Bursitis, Fibromyalgia, and other conditions that benefit from reducing inflammation.

Humulene could be effective when administered orally or inhaled as an aerosol to combat allergies.

Anti-tumor

Humulene has been tested for its efficacy in fighting several types of cancerous cells. A Study found that the humulene in balsam fir oil effectively kills tumor cells by turning off their antioxidant processes.

Weight-loss 

As an appetite suppressant, humulene works alongside other Chemicals in Cannabis to promote weight loss.

Anti-Bacterial 

Humulene is known for its notable anti-bacterial properties, such as those against the bacteria Staphylococcus aureus when used in appropriate quantities.

A prominent terpene in cannabis, humulene is distinctive for its association with the hops in beer and has shown potential in treating allergies, tumors, and particularly inflammation. This terpene is notably lacking in the CB2 Receptor, further research has to be conducted to better understand the mechanisms correlated to humulene’s effects.

Chemical Properties 

Formula: C15H24

Molar mass: 204.35 g/mol

Density: 886 kg/m³

Boiling point: 106 °C

Chemical Structure

Alkaloids Therapeutics

Phenolics, Terpenes and Alkaloid

Plants, such as cannabis, produce an amazing variety of organic compounds over and above their everyday components and metabolites. The secondary compounds are derived from everyday components, but are not central to metabolism. An example of this is THC.

 In addition to the phenolics and Terpenoids. Particularly important and diverse are the alkaloids which are nitrogen containing cyclic compounds. This class includes many useful chemicals, such as: caffeine, nicotine, atropine and quinine.

Alkaloid 

Quinine, traditionally used as a muscle relaxant is found in bark of Cinchona trees.

Quinine has been used in unextracted form by Europeans since at least the 17th century.  It was first used to treat malaria during the 1940s.

Natural product-derived compounds have played a major role in Medical Treatment discovery.

Chloroquine is a more active semi-synthetic derivative of quinine. Hydroxychloroquine, the less toxic version, is an appealing option mainly because it’s an off-the-shelf drug. Companies know how to make it, there are low-cost generic versions available, and the drug has already been tested and approved for use against malaria and to treat inflammation in conditions like arthritis.

The drug has recently been used to treat corona-virus patients in China and in France, where some researchers said it showed Great Promise, though more trials would determine if it really works safely.

Invitro research shows hydroxychloroquine slowdown of infection from Covid-19. These results are preliminary.

Interaction with Cannabis

Delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol (Delta9-THC) enhances quinine palatability and reduces the rejection of intra-oral delivery of quinine

Quinine increases some side effects of cannabis, such as drowsiness suggesting .

That it’s activity within the endocannabinoid system adheres to the principles of the Entourage Effect and helps to regulate the CB1 receptor.

Cannabis is Essential

There is much to learn from nature. Cannabis dispensaries are being deemed as “essential businesses,” as they are allowed to remain open under state emergency orders. Regulators world-wide can note.

If Quinine dose end up curing Covid-19 it will serve as an example of how nature is very important for future medicine.

Chemical Properties 

Formula: C20H24N2O2

Molar mass: 324.42 g/mol

Density: 120 kg/m³

Boiling point: 495 °C

Chemical Structure

Terpenes for Vaccines

In spite of widespread agreement regarding the desirability of oral vaccination, the approach has met with considerable resistance. This seems to be due to doubts regarding the efficacy of orally administered vaccines. Concerns over immune response mounted after oral vaccination is harsher than that achieved by injection. In reality, attempts to compare efficacy of injected and oral vaccines directly are not entirely valid, as the two routes initiate immunity in different parts of the body, and engender types of immunity different in qualitative rather than simply quantitative terms. 

There is a general perception that mucosal immune responses are short‐lived. This may, in part, be the result of observations on systemic immunity generated after Oral Administration, where cells enter via gut to the bloodstream and focus locally. 

Another concern is that pre‐existing immunity to the viral carrier may impair their ability to function as vaccines.Research shows a correlation between increased volatile terpene content and the decline of defense responses produced by the T-cells. Ingested cannabis can therefore be used to improve oral administration of vaccines.

Terpenes may also have potential as an oral vaccine carrier. This particularly makes sense bearing in mind that oils have been used as the basis for parenteral adjuvant formulations for decades, at least in experimental studies, in the form of Freund’s complete and incomplete adjuvants, where mineral oil is taken up by phagocytic cells, and appears to have a stimulating effect in its own right. A number of oil‐containing injectable vaccines are currently on the market, but in these formulations the antigen is located outside the oil droplets. For formulations administered orally, where the antigen needs to be protected from digestive enzymes and carried by the droplets. 

Terpenes interact with the Endocannabinoid System and help control our immunity. Harnessing the knowledge available is enough to design many new Terpene Applications

More about Cymene

Cymene is a terpene that is commonly found in both cumin and thyme. 

p-Cymene is an alkyl aromatic hydrocarbon mainly used to study oxidation reactions under various conditions to synthesize highly valuable intermediates and building-blocks.

The monoterpene’s short half-life is a limitation for several approaches that have been used to improve pharmaceutical properties of the compound.

Antimicrobial

Cymene’s antimicrobial properties make it useful for topical creams, and found to have immunoprotective properties. 

Cymene appears to be a particularly powerful antimicrobial as it serves a dual purpose. It is one of many antimicrobial other terpenes, additionally, it works synergistically with these other terpenes to produce stronger results.

Cymene  has been widely investigated due to the urgent need for new substances with antimicrobial properties, to be used to treat communicable diseases whose diffusion in developed countries has been facilitated by globalization and the evolution of antimicrobial resistance. 

Antifungal

Cymene has anti-fungal properties.

p-Cymene possessed lower antifungal activity than carvacrol and thymol,  but works synergistically with other terpenes to create a stronger protective influence against skin infections and fungal growths.

Anxiety

Anxiety Stress and anxiety are common and complicated conditions affecting people of all walks of life.  Terpenes like Cymene help regulate mood through several mechanisms.

Analgesic

There is evidence to suggest that P-cymene has analgesic properties. It can be difficult to determine exactly what is impacting on the nervous system with essential oils, given the complexity and the variety of terpenes that are found in any one oil, however, p-cymene combined with the other terpenes that are found in sweet marjoram oil clearly has beneficial effects for numbing and soothing pain.

Antioxidant Potential

Cymene may present a new strategy in the development of treatment for many diseases in which oxidative stress plays an important pathophysiological role.

Memory Enhancer

Cymene can help to inhibit the action of AchE, which means that the neurotransmitter Acetylcholine has a longer duration. A mechanism that can help improve memory, attention, and motivation. Taken in excessively, AchE inhibitors can cause problems, however, the benefits of microdosing is shown helpful for attention disorders, Nervousness, and mood alterations.

Medicinal Potential 

While it is obvious that cymene has powerful medicinal effects, more research is needed to determine its mechanisms of action as well as its potential in developing new delivery mechanisms.

Commercial Interest 

The antimicrobial and antifungal features are of particularly special interest to the commercial packaging industry. The idea of edible films is not new. The wax coatings that are added to fruits and vegetables have been around for over 100 years. The idea of using edible films that are functional in other ways, such as blocking light, or medication, is a relatively new thing. 

There are some considerations being given to active biomolecules which can act as a biodegradable, non-toxic, antimicrobial penetrating agents. 

One new film is chitosan, which is safe and quite useful in and of itself, but has still suffered from some issues in terms of water permeability that lower its effectiveness. Oregano essential oil is being added to chitosan to make a powerful antifungal and antimicrobial wrap. The active ingredient in oregano essential oil is p-cymene, along with other agents such as carvacrol and thymol.

Chemical properties 

Formula: C10H14

Molar mass: 134.21 g/mol

Density: 857 kg/m³

Boiling point: 177 °C

Chemical structure 

Cymene chemical structure
Cymene

Linalool Outlined

Linalool 

Linalool is a monoterpene, it has a role as a plant metabolite and is produced by an assortment of plants. Historically used in traditional medicine for its sedative and anti-epileptic properties, many new applications have been found.

Metabolism 

Linalool doesn’t stick around in your body for long and doesn’t accumulateI as it undergoes metabolic modifications including oxygenation and acetylation, which may affect the modulatory efficacy of the generated linalool derivatives.

Uses 

There are many Linalool applications.

It is used as a scent in the majority of perfumed hygiene products. its applications include the formulation of,cosmetics, skin care, hair care, medical care and home care products for its scent and absorption properties.

Anti-Inflammatory and Pain Reducer

Linalool is useful for dampening responses to injury or sickness.

Inflammatory response can be driven by cytokine production. Cytokine regulate function and expression of adenosine. Linalool can increase the adenosine levels in the body, pain-relieving  properties to its elevation of adenosine levels, an inhibitory brain chemical that is notably blocked by caffeine.

Sedative

Linalool can improve sleep and increase energy. 

Adenosine, a chemical that relaxes the mind and serves as a sedative. Inhaled linalool seems to induce sedation without significant impairment in motor abilities

Anti-Epileptic

Linalool is known as a powerful anticonvulsant agent.

The anticonvulsant effects of Linalool can be attributed to both an inhibition of potassium-stimulation and antagonism of NMDA and GABA receptors. gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA)are involved in muscle contraction.

Research suggests mostly carbon 8 oxygenated Linalool metabolites positively affect GABAergic currents.

Immune Response

Effects of Linalool on immune functions are currently being studied.

Linalool inhalation has been shown to act as an anxiolytic and may boost immune system performance. A healthier immune system better prepared to fight infection and disease Some research suggests that Linalool can inhibit the development of cancerous tumors and ease the symptoms of a variety of autoimmune disorders. 

Anti-Mosquitos

Linalool can deter mosquitos.

Linalool interacts with an odorant receptor effectively disorienting the mosquito. It is found that a formulation containing monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes is the most effective repellent. 

Anti-Microbial Modulator

Linalool may improve anti-microbial properties.

Chemical analysis revealed that linalool from cumin seed oil were the bioactive compounds responsible for both synergistic antibacterial and antioxidant activities. 

Cardiovascular System

Linalool helps to reduce blood pressure.

Linalool reduces blood pressure due to a direct effect on the vascular smooth muscle leading to vasodilation. Hypotensive actions caused by direct vasodilation coupled with decrease of heart rate.

Anti-Alzheimer

Disease caused by the buildup of brain plaques and cellular tangles. Linalool and other terpenes are being investigated for their role in reducing these symptoms and restoring brain function 

Storage

Due to the oxidation hazard the correct storage and handling of terpenes is very important. Due to the cost, weight, and fragility, glass or ceramic containers are rarely used for packaging, however, the Linalool will have no effect on glass or ceramic packaging. Most suppliers use rust-free stainless steel storage. Other specialized methods of removing oxygen is suggested to reduce oxidation.

Chemical Properties 

Formula: C10H18O

Molar mass: 154.25 g/mol

Density: 858 kg/m³

Boiling point: 198 °C

Chemical Structure

Carene Terpene Profile

Delta-3-Carene 

Limonene, Myrcene, Linalool and Pinene are widely recognized terpenes. There are many other terpenes with potential to revolutionize industries, and are known to carry an array of medicinal benefits.

Delta-3-Carene is a terpene which is produced by plants secondary metabolism. Specifically, Carene is a bicyclic monoterpene found in various sources including pine, basil, black pepper and cannabis . 

Source

It occurs as a constituent of turpentine along with pinene, camphene and terpinolene. Like some other Botanically Derived terpenes, Carene is chiral, existing in both alpha and beta rotations; occurring naturally both as the racemate and enantio-enriched forms.

Scent 

Carene has a sweet and pungent odor, best described as citrusy and earthy aroma with piney undertones. Carene’s pine citrus taste is used across the food and beverage industry to augment savory and sweet tastes.

Dermal Absorption

In cosmetics, 3-carene is used for its dermal absorption properties. Products such as ointments, creams and soaps utilize terpenes to perform their functions.  Transdermal Medicine delivery methods relay on variants or synthetic versions of Carene.

Medical Benefits

3-Carene is beneficial to those suffering from advanced respiratory diseases such as bronchitis. It is known to decrease inflammation and fungal infections. 3-Carene may also show properties that promote bone health. This terpene holds an important role in the overall medicinal potential of cannabis. Oral administration of 3-Carene increases the sleep duration and reduces sleep latency.

Characteristics 

Since this terpene is not Water Soluble, but miscible with fats and oils it is used throughout industry. Acting as both a solvent and material for organic synthesis. 

Dosage 

Delivery methods include oral, dermal, inhalation or ingestion . Carene at high doses can cause irritation, but it is fairly quickly metabolized. It is very important to dilute this terpene to appropriate concentrations. The concentrations vary according to the application and delivery methods. 

Chemical Properties 

Formula: C10H16

Molar mass: 136.24 g/mol

Density: 867 kg/m³

Boiling point: 338 °F 170 °C

Chemical Structure

3-Carene Chemical Structure
car-3-ene