Category Archives: Medical Cannabis

Creating Medicine from Cannabis

Cannabis’s unique medicinal properties and Active Compounds are widely documented. Cannabinoids interact within the Endocannabinoid System. THC has proven medical benefits in particular formulations. The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has approved THC-based medications, dronabinol and nabilone, prescribed in pill form for nausea and appetite treatment, aiding cancer and AIDS patients.

In addition, several other cannabis -based medications have been approved or are undergoing clinical trials. Nabiximols, a mouth spray that is currently available for treating the spasticity and neuropathic pain that may accompany multiple sclerosis, combines THC with CBD.

The FDA also approved a CBD-based liquid medication called Epidiolex® for the treatment of severe childhood epilepsy, specifically, Dravet syndrome and Lennox-Gastaut syndrome. The medication is being delivered with reliable dosage and reproducible route.

Cannabis posses nitrogenous compounds, amino acids, proteins, glycoproteins, enzymes, sugars and related compounds, hydrocarbons, alcohols, acids, esters, aldehydes, ketones, fatty acids, lactones, steroids, terpenes, non-cannabinoid phenols, flavonoids, vitamins and pigments already used in Botanical Medicine and are yet to be empirically proven and peer reviewed. While some of these compounds are found in other Botanical Sources, it is likely that there are unique combinations found only in cannabis.

As we study this remarkable plant further, more constituents are showing promise for new and revolutionary Drug Delivery systems and Antibacterial Activities

Clearly, more research is needed from the scientific community to produce appropriate, safe utilization of cannabis. However, the FDA does not recognize the use of medical applications of cannabis. There is no reason to regulate cannabis derived medicine any different than general recommendations on studying botanicals.

Convoluted regulation of cannabis makes funding for research lacking. Independent Cannabis research cannot be done by companies as they are hindered from scaling and acquiring credit. In addition, concerns over conflicts of interest as seen with traditional drug company-sponsored studies.

In order to unlock cannabis potential cannabis possession should be deregulated so academic institutions can dedicate lab time for cannabis research.

Digital Channels need to be more lenient to discussion and allow ideas to spread and be refined. Unjustified resistance to cannabis for medical and recreational use has to be discarded. It is time regulative, communication and banking systems reform their attitude towards cannabis. As a global community we have proved that we can work fast if necessary. If you are interested in sharing cannabis related ideas or identify potential collaborations feel free to contact us privately.

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Cannabis Mechanisms for Weight-loss

Studies show that cannabis users seem to have lower BMI than control groups. There is more research to be done but there are several reasons for weight loss with cannabis use.

The Endocannabinoid System plays a vital role in homeostasis by signaling receptors found in the central nervous system and vital organs. The CB1 Receptor is a primary mediator of energy storage, conservation, uptake and general homeostasis. CB1 antagonists are effective not only in reducing body weight, but also in improving the associated Insulin Resistance Conditions

Some Cannabinoids are high-affinity CB1 receptor ligands and potent antagonists. It is important to remember that the cannabinoid affinity is directly affected by Terpenes. Terpenes, cannabinoids and other Cannabis Compounds alter the function of cannabinoid receptors which finetune metabolic functions.

The ratio of competing substrates, Omega-3 to Omega-6 fatty acid within the blood affect the endocannabinoid system and determines N-arachidonoylethanolamide (AEA/anandamide) and 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG) production. When there is too much omega-6 fatty acid, it gets converted to increased AEA and 2-AG, stimulating CB1 and promoting weight gain. 

Omega-3 fatty acids are common as dietary supplements due to their apparent ability to reduce obesity, inflammation by leading to reduced AEA and 2-AG levels and CB1 activity.

Generally, THC results in downregulation of CB1, leading to reduced sensitivity to AEA and 2-AG. It is apparent that long-lasting downregulation of CB1 following cannabis consumption reduces energy storage and increases metabolic rates, thus causing weight reduction of elevated dietary omega-6/omega-3 ratios. 

While adequate research is still required, some hypothesis that CBD is a contributor to weight-loss. CBD does not directly deactivate CB1 receptors, but may influence the production of antagonists to dampen its biological response. Altering affinity of cannabinoid receptors may help reduce appetite, make healthier food more appealing, and regulate metabolic rate.

Certain terpenes possess an anorectic quality. Limonene and Humulene are anti-inflammatory and are commonly used to promote weight loss.

Cannabis strain related weight-loss may occur from behavioral changes associated with cannabis consumption rather than cannabinoid stimulation. 

Pain relieving properties of cannabis allow for more physical activity. These properties are also thought to shorten recovery time between workouts allowing for a more strenuous workout regiment.

Cannabis stimulates the dopamine receptors in the brain responsible for mood. Cannabis users often substitute cannabinoids for food in the brain reward pathways. Individuals can fall into a habit of eating when feeling worried, anxious, nervous, or stressed. Lowering anxiety levels can reduce calorie intake and prevent overeating as a coping mechanism.

Decreased alcohol consumption leads to weight loss, not only because of calorie reduction but also from an increased metabolic rate and decreased fat degradation. 

Research has begun to fully understand the mechanisms associated with weight-loss caused by cannabis consumption. The initial results are promising, but there is more research to be done to fully utilize the clinical potential.

Possible Benefits of Cannabis in Insulin Dependent Diabetes

Recent studies have highlighted a number of potential health benefits of cannabis as a diabetes treatment and suggest that cannabis compounds can produce the following physiological effects:

Phytocannabinoid have been shown to reduce intraocular pressure considerably in people with glaucoma. Epidemiological data suggests that patients with diabetes are at increased risk of developing glaucoma/retinopathy, caused by the blood flow restriction to the eye. Active Cannabis Compounds can suppress arterial inflammation and treat cardiovascular diseases. Cannabinoids and Terpenes aid in vasodilation and improve circulation, while lowering blood pressure and helping reduce the risk of heart disease or other diabetes complications. Specifically, CBD is known to enhance the vasorelaxant responses to avoid cardiomyopathy which is common amongst diabetics. Small monoterpenes exhibit vasorelaxant effects as they increase the cannabinoids affinity to the receptor.

The Endocannabinoid System can prevent nerve inflammation neuropathic pain. Cannabinoids are potent anti-inflammatory agents and signal apoptosis. They stimulate cannabinoid receptors within the nervous system, triggering suppression of cytokine production and induction of T-regulatory cells. Use of topical creams to relieve neuropathic pain and tingling sensations.

Cannabis can help relieve muscle cramps pain. Cannabinoids also interact within the endocannabinoid system in the gastrointestinal tract. Direct activation of CB1 receptors by plant-derived/endogenous compounds reduce both gastric acid secretion and decrease the formation of gastric mucosal lesions.

Cannabinoids play a role in regulating metabolic processes. 

THC activates the CB1R receptor in the brain, which triggers an increased desire to eat. Pro-opiomelanocortin nerve cells, which normally produce feelings of fullness, become activated and promote hunger under the influence of THC. CB1 binding results in the release of  hunger-stimulating chemicals (insulin) rather than appetite-suppressing chemicals (cholecystokinin). THC binds to mitochondria inside of cells and acts to switch to feelings of hunger. increased insulin lowers glucose and stabilises blood sugar levels in diabetics. Specific cannabis strains can decrease blood glucose levels and increase insulin production in people with type 2 diabetes. THC and CBD have been shown to regulate metabolism and blood glucose indicating possible therapeutic glycemic control agents.

Further research and testing is mandatory to fully explain the mechanisms and produce viable diabetes treatment.

Cannabis And The Endocannabinoid System

If you ever smoked cannabis you understand that no two are alike. This is because cannabis is grown, and influenced by genetics. These genetics determine the chemical composition within the bud. 

In an attempt to scale and homogenize the industry new discoveries have been made.

Users reported different effects regardless of similar concentrations of cannabinoids.  This is due to different strain genetics producing different terpene compositions. These terpenes work within the endocannabinoid system.

Endocannabinoid System

To understand why we should first understand how cannabis works. 

THC and CBD are Cannabinoids, which bind to receptors in the human body, specifically the CB1 and CB2 receptors. These receptors control the endocannabinoid system which is responsible for regulating mood, immune function, and hormone secretion.

Think of the receptor like a Leggo, one piece connecting to the other. There is a limited amount of space on the receptors for binding. If CBD takes up the receptor THC cannot bind. In other words, CBD modulates the effects of THC. It does this by competing with THC for the available CB1 receptors. By binding first, it is able to block THC from binding. 

Terpenes and the Endocannabinoid System

It is now understood that these organic compounds naturally found in various plants work together to regulate and enhance cannabinoids. These compounds include terpenes. Scientists refer to this phenomenon as the entourage effect 

According to the entourage effect different terpenes change cannabonoids’s affinity to the cannabinoid receptors. It makes them bind at different levels and control their overall psychoactive effects. Some terpenes might promote relaxation and stress-relief, while others potentially promote focus and awareness. 

Terpenes in Plants

Apart from terpenes crucial role in the entourage effect they are also responsible for the distinct smell of plants. They often have a strong odor and protect the plants that produce them by deterring herbivores and by attracting predators. Some terpenes appear in higher abundance than others. Terpenes such as Linalool, Myrcene, Pinene and Limonene are particularly common in cannabis and their effects are well documented. There is an unimaginable number of terpene combinations that cause different effects.

Studying the entourage effect, specifically terpene interactions can ultimately produce effect-base terpene formulations. To regulate mood and immune functions. There are many benefits that have already come from researching terpenes. 

Botanical Medicine

The entourage effect helps maximize the therapeutic effects of CBD opening a new path in medicine terpene based treatments, backed by data. Terpenes will be a defining criteria for progress in the medical field.