Category Archives: Cannabis Research

Terpene Functional Groups and Applications

The large array of compounds can be grouped into a few classes of molecules. To learn more about these key groups of molecules and how most common types of extraction interact with them, check out the Latest Resources.

Terpenes are aromatic Phytochemicals, though many people commonly associate them with cannabis due to the abundance/high concentrations of them. These aromatic compounds create the scent and characteristics of many plants.They can have different degrees of unsaturation and a variety of functional groups.

Terpene Alcohols

Many important terpenoids contain hydroxyl groups forming terpene alcohols.

Terpineol Is found in three isomeric forms of C10H17OH, occurring naturally in the essential oils of certain plants and used as solvents in perfumes, soaps and medicine. This Monoterpene alcohol possesses antioxidant, anticancer, anticonvulsant, antiulcer, antihypertensive, anti-nociceptive qualities. It is also used to enhance Skin Penetration. There are many terpene alcohols suited for various applications, but terpineol is amongst the most common for industrial use.

Flavonoids/Phenols

Phenolics are a huge and diverse group of aromatic ring containing compounds, often containing hydroxyl groups. Phenol itself is the simplest member of the class, although it is not found in plants.

More complex phenyl propanoids include flavonoids. The pigments in red, blue or purple flowers are usually flavonoids called anthocyanins, made up of anthocyanidin with one or more sugar molecules attached. In addition anthocyanins have unique bioactivity and many health benefits.

Yellow and white color is attributed to other flavonoids.

Flavonols are the most prevalent plant flavonoids while flavones are present in relatively small quantities in select crop. In addition, flavonols, flavones, flavanones and Isoflavones have unique chemical structures with different chareterisitics. 

Aldehydes/Ketone

A major portion of certain volatile oils mainly comprise of aromatic terpene aldehydes. This functional group alters terpenoids interaction and solubility. 

Aldehydes and ketones are characterized by the presence of a carbonyl group (C=O). Their reactivity can generally be understood by recognizing that the carbonyl carbon contains a partial positive charge (δ+) and the carbonyl oxygen contains a partial negative charge (δ−).

Alkenes 

Generally, any of the series of unsaturated hydrocarbons containing a double bond, including ethylene and propylene.

Ethene is produced naturally by all higher plants from the amino acid methionine.

Alkynes 

The simplest acyclic alkynes with only one triple bond and no other functional groups.

One of the more interesting classes of new anti-cancer drugs is a group of naturally occurring enediynes which cleave DNA. Each has a ring tucked into a complex molecule which includes aromatic rings and sugars. These molecules are being produced synthetically by pharmacological companies with aim of improving medicine. 

Organic chemistry combined with Ethnobotanics has yielded healthcare advancements.

Studying cannabis’s unique compounds by application of the Entourage Effect can yield further breakthroughs. It is crucial to nurture infrastructure for research. It is paramount to allow researchers access to handle cannabis. Funding should not be restricted due to stigmation of cannabis. 

As more educational programs develop, growth incubators connect investors with researches aiming to succeed in industry. A warning to stakeholders, it is irresponsible to overlook Cannabis’s potential.

The linkage between basic science, knowledge and commercial benefits is undisputed. 

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Genetically Modified Cannabis

GMOs, or genetically modified organisms are a topic of contention and controversy in modern agriculture. For cannabis, the technology, ethics, and implications of Genetic Modification can have an impact on future production. Cannabis products show remarkable growth and acceptance into the mainstream. It is important to understand the impacts that GM crops may have on both the environment and on human health.

WHAT IS GMO?

Both traditional plant breeders and genetic engineers work with the aim of introducing desirable traits. Agriculturally, this typically means resistance to herbicides, pesticides and unsuitable conditions improving quality of crop. These are desirable traits that make harvests more robust and easier to grow.

While Traditional Breeding is done via fertilization, GMO are done using Biotechnological Techniques that physically move genes from one organism to another. GMO is not limited to naturally occurring traits within the species’ gene pool.

Traditional process allows for the unregulated exchange of genes; today’s labs are ready to more precisely manipulate strain genetics. The move towards precision and exacting control of genetic modification can allow companies to scale while producing consistent products.

The organism which receives a gene and the biological lab process of these modifications can be described as transgenic. Numurus transgenic techniques that have been developed over the years as modern biotechnology and scientific understanding of gene expression and gene mechanics.

It is important to know that some argue that the risks far outweigh the benefits in this equation.

Why Use GMO? 

Genetic engineering has advantages. The technique allows for traits to be introduced into a gene pool without complications and with complete technical control in sterile laboratory conditions. There are scientific capabilities to incorporate genes across unrelated species since all life share the same genetic building blocks and can be manipulated similarly at that subcellular level.

Are there Genetic Modifications for Cannabis?

Genetically modified organisms are hugely applicable across a number of disciplines with the same general targets: increasing crop yield, decreasing the cost of production, increasing pest resistance, decreasing maturation time, and increasing environmental tolerance to environmental stressors. Genetically modified cannabis can include new strains. Some research has been done on cannabinoid producing algae. 

Are Genetically Modified Organisms Safe?

Foreign genetic alterations can result in unintended consequences.

Altered organisms can present significant changes in its metabolism, growth rate, and response to environmental factors. Not only can genetic alteration affect the genetically modified organism itself, but also has far-reaching implications upon the habitat, from ingestion to surroundings . The risks associated with genetic manipulations are generally categorized in two main branches: human health and environment.

How do Genetic modifications affect Humans?

There are specific systems in place for evaluation of GM organisms and their effects. The tests focus on assessing toxicity, allergenicity and stability of the inserted gene, additionally, the nutritional effects of the gene modification upon the crop is evaluated. While not directly toxic to human health, the immediate and long-term consequences are of concern. Public exposure to new allergens found in the GM crop via potential transfer of antibiotic-resistance during digestion, inhalation or absorption should be considered amongst associated potential risks to human health.

What are the Effects on the Environment?

Releasing genetically modified organisms can directly affect Wild Populations by mixing with the wild types through a process known as outcrossing. Such outcrossing can affect the surrounding environment and species can potentially threaten the viability of the wild cohort and influence other natural populations within the ecosystem. 

superweeds and superbugs are evolved in response to the increase in herbicide-resistant crops. They are much more difficult to manage, and usually result in increased chemical pesticide.

Are GMOs Currently Used?

At present, the number of genetically modified organisms under development and in production is steadily rising. This is a result of the scientific community’s improved understanding of Gene Expression Systems and manipulations; including improved laboratory techniques, tools for sequencing whole genomes and processes for cloning or transferring genes.

There is no doubt that this list of successful scientific and technical progress is crucial to improving global health, science, medicine, and research overall, but as such technologies and techniques continue to become more sophisticated and more varied, the associated applications and effects must be considered.

Should Genetic Modification be used?

Once GMOs are released into the environment, their effects cannot be recalled. While we weigh the potential benefits of decreased agricultural prices and increased nutritional gains, it is paramount to compare these to the potential risks involved and determine which route the industry should pursue. Fellow cannabis cultivators, scientists and advocates, what is your determination?

Introduction to Terpene Science

1.1 What are Terpenes?

Terpenoids are biomolecules made up of multiple isoprenes (Hydrocarbons). These terpenoids can be linear, cyclical, or both. When a terpenoid is modified with a functional group it is referred to as a terpene. Terpenes are categorized by size. C5H8 Monoterpene (C5H8)2 Sesquiterpene (C5H8)3 Diterpene (C5H8)4 Sesterterpene (C5H8)5 Teterpenes, and so on.

Each terpene behaves differently based on the category and functional group. Many Have pharmacological and biological activities. These terpenes work on the endocannabinoid system In a process called the Entourage Effect.

1.2 Terpenes in Nature

Plants produce various types of metabolites. Terpenoids are a product of the chloroplast’s secondary metabolism. Terpenes and cannabinoids are produced within the trichome cells through biosynthesis. Terpenes act like the plant’s “hormones”. Plants also use these terpenes to protect them against fungus and bacteria. Terpenes also attract pollinating insects. 

1.3 Terpene Sources 

Plant Derived Terpenes go through a distillation process. There’s no perfect way to Extract Terpenes from organic sources. As with most things, it’s a cost-benefit analysis – how do you eliminate impurities like fats, chlorophyll, and other plant metabolites without damaging the precious compounds you’re trying to preserve? There’s also the issue of time – the longer the process takes, the less efficient it is for commercial use and the more chances there are for impurities to work their way into the finished product. There are a whole host of methods and technologies that are used in pursuit of that goal. In order to isolate one needs to find a suitable source and method.

1.4 The Scientific Method

Science is a process of knowing about the natural universe through observation and experiment. Scientists go through a rigorous process to determine new knowledge about our surroundings; this process is generally referred to as the scientific method. Science is broken down into various fields, of which Terpene Science is one. This science consists of multiple disciplines including Chemistry, Biology and Pharmacology and is both qualitative and quantitative.

1.5 Terpene Research

Terpenes can form long or branched chains or rings and have other attached atoms. There is essentially an unlimited number of possible organic molecules.

Functional Groups consist of other atoms, such as oxygen or nitrogen, and are included in an organic molecule. Functional groups are represented by R and R’  addition to hydrocarbon group for a complete molecular structure. The addition can change the physical and chemical properties dramatically.

To understand, control or modify chemical reactions of living organisms, we must understand life on the molecular level. While living things are extremely complicated the chemical reactions and Molecules are relatively simple.

1.6 Terpenes in Cannabis

THC and CBD are Cannabinoids, which bind to receptors in the human body, specifically the CB1 and CB2 receptors. These receptors control the Endocannabinoid System which is responsible for regulating mood, immune function and hormone secretion. Different terpenes change cannabonoids’s affinity to the cannabinoid receptors. It makes them bind at different levels and control their overall psychoactive effects. Some terpenes might promote relaxation and stress-relief, while others potentially promote focus and awareness. 

1.7 Terpene Profiling

New Quantitative Analytical Techniques are constantly developed directed towards cannabis research. Due to these techniques we are able to further biological understanding of cannabis. Mastering the main principles behind these techniques is crucial.

1.8 Biochemistry

There are four major classes of biochemical compounds – Carbohydrates, lipids, proteins and nucleic acids. We can not predict the role cannabis will serve in the future and how our intervention will impact future strains’ genetics, but there is still much research to be done.

1.9 Product Development

Cannabis contains over 500 distinct Compounds, which include cannabinoids, flavonoids, nitrogenous compounds, amino acids, hydrocarbons, enzymes, terpenes, and more. These compounds altogether contribute to the unique pharmacological and sensual function. It is important to keep products consistently providing desired effects to maximize Cannabis’s Potential.

Feminized Seeds – All About Cannabis Seeds

Feminized seeds are seeds which have been created by breeding two Female Plants. It is a basic Ethnoecology

To create feminized seed a female pollen drop must be achieved. The pollen is collected and dusted onto other female plants. This pollination will always result in feminized seeds, as the female plant will not pass on a Y chromosome. Although there are mostly female seeds, some express male traits. If not caught early one plant can pollinate many other female cannabis plants.⁠

⁠When you pollinate the same Phenotype of a strain that you collected the pollen from that is referred to as backcrossing, sometimes denoted as a S1. Cross pollination of different strains is referred to as a F1 Reversal and denoted as F1R.⁠

⁠Inducing stress results in increased gibberelin hormone production inducing pollen drop. Breeding using colloidal silver to cause stress will pass on bad traits. A properly done reversal using gibberellic acid will not pass on bad traits such as hermaphroditism, rather, Enhance clone traits.⁠

⁠The goal is to increase gibberelin production while decreasing ethylene production. This will create the Right Conditions for the female plants to drop pollen without stress or passing on undesirable traits. A specialized solution is diluted with water and sprayed onto the plants, that process is repeated until pollen sacks develop. A reversal is never permanent. Changing the sex of the plant is only temporary and does not alter the DNA. Once you stop spraying you have roughly 6 weeks until the plant reverts back to female.⁠

While feminized seeds are cost effective, they guarantee near 100% female crops allowing for no male specimens to discard. Feminized seeds are not the appropriate choice if your aim is to produce seeds and Alter Genetic Strains.

Cannabis Genetics can get very convoluted on a macro scale but creating feminized seeds is relatively easy.

Marijuana: Neurochemistry &Physiology

After years of fierce debate, increasing amounts of objective, non- judgmental research is available although it is made difficult due to the complexity of the cannabis plant. Cannabis contains hundreds of different molecules. The plant is able to synthesize these cannabinoid compounds which is a family of 150 cannabinoids including the very well known compound THC. 

Though these compounds can affect many physical functions in the body, it is mostly used recreationally. 

Botany 

Cannabis has many strains with various terpene profiles, however, many botanists believe there are just three species of Cannabis plants. 

Cannabis sativa, a tall plant that is grown throughout the world. It can be cultivated to produce large amounts of THC, the chemical that produces psychic effects. It can be grown, as it has been for thousands of years, or indoors.

Hemp, a source of fiber for rope, concrete, plastic and cloth. Hemp plants contain minimal amounts of THC. they grow rapidly to large sizes and provide sustainable, scalable and eco-friendly material solutions.

Cannabis indica, a short pungent plant often called skunk weed, with high concentrations of THC and a distinct terpene profile. It is especially plentiful in India and the Middle-east though it can be grown anywhere. It is usually the source of hashish and other concentrates or extracts. 

Cannabis ruderalis, found mostly in Central Asia, but it has no use as a fiber and its psychic effects are minimal. In an effort to increase the plant’s potency, cannabis growers use the sinsemilla technique. This method prevents the female plants from being pollinated by the male plants thus increasing the concentration of THC. 

Brain Chemistry 

Stronger varieties of cannabis can produce distortions of time, color, and sound. As with other psychoactive compounds, cannabis’s botanical compounds mimic neurochemicals that exist naturally in the human body and brain. These internal brain chemicals are called endogenous cannabinoids or endocannabinoids.

The first one discovered was anandamide followed by 2 arachidonoylglycerol designated 2AG. Generally, there are 10 times the amount of anandamides in our body and brain as there are the endorphins. Anandamides are  involved in a huge range of functions, they work to modulate and modify, by either increasing or decreasing the sensitivity of our mind.

Anandamides, like all neurotransmitters, help transmit messages from one nerve cell to receptor sites on an adjoining nerve cell. This combination of electrical and chemical signals within the 100 billion cells that make up the central nervous system, help the brain communicate with the outside world through its senses and within itself through memories, emotions, and thoughts. 

Endocannabinoid System

So far, researchers have conclusively identified 2 types of receptor sites: the CB1 and CB2 receptors. The CB1 receptors are found primarily in the brain and their activation results in the psychoactive effects of cannabis. This is because THC mimics anandamide, the endocannabinoid that naturally activates these receptors. 

CB2 receptors are found throughout the body and are much more involved in changing the ocular pressure, heart rate, blood pressure, and pain sensitivity. 

By understanding the neurochemical and physiological effects of cannabis, it is possible to make better judgments about the possible cannabis use or refined cannabinoids for medical applications. 

By extracting and isolating these molecules from cannabis we can focus only on the ones that have the medicinal potential.

Cannabinoid Stimulation

Mood

One part of the brain rich in endocannabinoid receptors is the amygdala, found in the brain’s emotional center. A crucial function of the amygdala is to signal a sense of novelty particularly when one encounters a new situation, idea, or even new surroundings.  

As the amygdala is continually stimulated with THC, the CB1 receptors respond with delight. With excess use, these cells react to the overstimulation by retracting into the cell membrane and becoming inactive (self regulation). This process is known as down regulation. 

Once receptor sites are down regulated, it takes approximately two weeks for them to recover. This reversible process can help in fighting mood disorders.

Reward/Reinforcement Center 

Has high levels of endocannabinoids and CB1 receptors. When stimulated, a cascade effect bathes the core of this system, the nucleus accumbens, in dopamine, causing a feeling of accomplishment or gratification. These mechanisms are limited by tolerance.  

Memory

The highest concentration of cannabinoids in the body is the hippocampus. The hippocampus is involved in short term memory conversion to long term memory. 

Neurons produce endocannabinoids to shut off memory because we can not remember everything. When we overstimulate, it actually cuts down on the amount of short term memory and changes the frontal lobe activity responsible for decision making. Regulating cannabinoid receptors is key for future medical use.

Motor Activity

A third area of the brain that has very high concentration of cannabinoids naturally is in the basal ganglia and the cerebellum, involved in controlling motor activity to relaxe the muscles and reduce pain. Overall causes a decreased reaction time to situations and slows physical movements. This can be regulated by changing the affinity and concentration of cannabinoids in the system. 

Perception 

Generally there are two main cannabinoids, THC and CBD. these cannabinoids work synergistically and affect the ability to follow moving objects and effects the ability to carry out complex tasks. 

Appetite

The  endocannabinoids regulate appetite by the level of stimulation they cause in a set of CB1 receptors in the hypothalamus. By stimulating the receptors appetite is greatly increased. Research indicates that blocking selective CB1 receptor sites instead of stimulating them, causes a reduction in appetite and significant weight loss. 

Respiratory Effects

Cannabis alters  the immune defenses against infection. While smoking is always bad for the lungs, cannabis contains compounds that lower inflammation and fight bacterial infections.

Psychological Effects 

Cannabis has been reported to improve neurocognitive and psychiatric conditions, such as Alzheimer disease, anxiety disorders and bipolar disorder.

In addition, potentially reducing PTSD symptoms, cannabis also mitigates the propensity for inflammation and may be useful in psychological conditions that involve elevated inflammatory processes within the brain.

Effects

Cannabis works on the Endocannabinoid System. Compounds such as terpenes help change the affinity of the cannabinoids to the respective receptors. The medical applications are vast. As we understand more about various mechanisms in our body we uncover further benefits.

Terpene Overview

Terpene Discovery 

In 1887, German chemist Otto Wallach determined the structures of several terpenes and discovered that all of them were composed of two or more five-carbon units of isoprene

Terpenes Outlined

Terpenes are a large class of plant secondary products with a major role in defense against plant-feeding insects and herbivores. However, not all terpenoids act as secondary products. Many have important roles in primary processes, such as photosynthesis, stability of cell membranes, signaling, and as source compounds for several plant hormones.

Terpene Formation 

All terpenes are formed by condensation of two or more isoprene units and are classified on the basis of the number of isoprene units they contain.Some terpenes are being formed from linear arrangements of isoprene units followed by various cyclizations and rearrangements of the carbon skeleton.

Terpenes in Food 

Terpenes aren’t just something you buy as an extract or enjoy infused into your favorite products. These naturally occurring compounds are present in a number of foods we eat on a regular basis.

Terpenes are there, in abundance, quietly coloring our experiences and providing pleasurable moments.

Terpenes in Cannabis 

The most abundant terpenes in cannabis are Pinene,Linalool,Caryophyllene,Myrcene, Limonene and Humulene. These are specific to strain genetics and alter the cannabinoid’s effect within the Endocannabinoid System. Different stains can feel different due to the terpene concentrations and mechanisms.

Terpenes Scent

Terpenes are the primary components of essential oils — aromatics. They get incorporated into perfumes, cosmetics, scented candles and many more products. Unfortunately Terpenes oxidize easily due to autoxidation on air exposure.Freeze drying plant material can prolong shelf life and improve potency. 

Terpenes Sources

There’s no recognizable difference, for example, between isolated caryophyllene from black pepper and from cannabis. However, there is a difference between the other compounds that interact in cannabis compared with other plants. This Synergistic effect is known as the Entourage Effect. Since Cannabis is not legal internatio

nally many producers prefer Botanically Derived Terpenes.

Terpenes in Topicals and Creams

One way that topical cannabis producers are making their product attractive to new audiences is by infusing them with pure terpenes that imitate popular genetic strains. Not only does this enhance the literal medicinal value of topical cannabis products, it also enhances their scent, turning them into an aromatherapy product as well as a transdermal ones. Other producers use these terpenes simply for their respective chemical properties.

Terpenes Enhance Skin Penetration 

Certain terpenes are excellent carriers for the delivery of a wide range of medications.

Terpenes have been incorporated as adjuvants in the form of Penetration Enhancers or absorption promoters for improved drug delivery from various dosage forms including solutions, gels, and transdermal therapeutic systems.

Versatile Terpenes

The same terpenes that have proven themself so useful for human use have an adverse effect on invertebrates. Terpenes can be used as an organic non lethal pest repellent. Terpenes offer a promising alternative to conventional synthetic pesticides. 

Terpene Healing Properties

Each terpene has particular chemical properties and recommended dosage specific to application and delivery method. Chemical modifications of terpenes are being developed by pharmaceutical companies accompanied with peer reviewed research.

  • Anti-inflammatory
  • Antibacterial
  • Anti-microbial
  • Anti-depressant
  • Relaxant and sedating effects, 
  • Inhibits cancer growth
  • Healing of the mucous cells
  • Aids digestion 
  • Aid immune system
  • Suppresses muscle spasm

Cannabis Extraction

There are many useful substances, such as Terpenes and Cannabinaoids. As the demand for cannabis products increases and diversifies, extracting these substances becomes crucial for recreational and Medical Use. In order to isolate the active materials in cannabis there are two main ways of extraction.

A producer will require access to a cannabis oil extraction machine.

It’s worth noting that there are several types of these machines on the market. So care needs to be taken when making a selection. They vary in size,price,processing speed,user-friendliness and durability.

CO2 Extraction

The supercritical(subcritical) CO2 method uses carbon dioxide under pressure and ambient temperature to isolate, preserve and maintain the purity of the oil. CO2 extraction doesn’t like water in the source material so drying the cannabis properly beforehand is essential. Some view this method as leading the extraction industry. When done right the product is safe , potent and free of chlorophyll. The method achieves self-ready oil straight from the extractor with little effort.

CO2 Extraction Procedure

To perform an extraction, the plant material must be ground and placed into an extraction vessel. CO2 gas undergoes high temperature and pressure. A pump then forces supercritical CO2 into the extraction vessel where it meets the plant and breaks the trichomes allowing it to dissolve part of the plant material.

Ethanol Extraction 

Food grade ethanol can be used to create cannabis oil appropriate for vape pen cartridges and other products, however, this extraction method destroys some beneficial compounds including terpenes. These have health benefits that are favored by product makers.Over extraction of cannabis can also occur

Ethanol Extraction Procedure 

The cannabis plant material is placed in contact with the alcohol specifically ethanol and allowed to soak together thoroughly. The soak time should be adequate to enable the squeezing effect of the ethanol to withdraw the cannabis oil. Afterward, you are free to remove the residual plant materials through sieving. You may need to filter the resulting liquid effectively. The alcohol component of the fluid is eliminated by the evaporation process, leaving behind the pure cannabis oil.

It is important to realize that cannabis is not the only Source of these valuable compounds.

Future Extraction 

Much of the intellectual property in the cannabis world has to do with tweaking and automating extraction methods.
There are many ways to extract your Essential Terpenes and oils from plants. It is up to each producer to choose a method based on their desired product. We believe that CO2 is the way to go for scale.

Biotechnology in the Cannabis World

As the Cannabis Market grows, biotechnology is taking an increasingly important place in that market.

From research-driven improved medical delivery systems to a more enjoyable recreational experience.

Genetic Engineering 

A manipulation of the genetic code (genome), it can be done to either plants or animals. Since 1970 various cannabis genetic experiments have yielded potent effect based strain.

Manipulating individual genes and specific parts of the plant DNA, cannabis could be genetically modified in a way which would selectively favor production of certain cannabinoid compounds

Genetically engineer a cannabis strain that yields ultra high levels of the whole spectrum of cannabinoid chemicals. The aim will be to extract and isolate them into individual Cannabinoids on an industrial scale

Unlock the Medical Potential of Cannabis 

Many are aiming to patent specific cannabis cultivar and aim to improve phenotypic traits and claim intellectual property for commercial purposes. There are two ways in which it can be achieved, the fist is genetic hybridization and the second is gene manipulation.

Genetic Hybridization

Process of interbreeding individuals from genetically distinct populations to produce a hybrid. A genetic hybrid would therefore carry two different alleles of the same gene.

Gene Manipulation

Often referred to as genetic engineering, it is a general term for any method which manipulates the genetic material. Gene manipulation includes gene splicing, use of recombinant DNA, CRISPR  and PCR

Genetic Diversity 

Since favorable traits are encouraged the loss of genetic diversity can threaten genetic diversity leaving cannabis vulnerable to Environmental Changes, such as weather, bacterial and viral infections. The more diverse cultivars there are, the more resistance cannabis becomes.

Environmental Impact 

Plant populations that possess variations of alleles are suited for the changing environment. Those plants are more likely to survive to produce offspring bearing that allele.

Without genetic diversity cannabis is more likely to perish.

By studying cannabis genetics, we are not only improving the weed genetics, we can also protect it for future use. In order to do that clear road-map of development needs to be cataloged.

Database

The need for an accessible Database can help geneticists have a vision and improve cannabis’s favorable traits while accumulating data that can help predict trends and insure the plant’s survival.
Using rapidly developing yet common techniques can give Cannabis Startups an edge over the competition if stand art best practices are used. As more research is being adopted to the cannabis market, it is important to Share the Knowledge rather than profit from it.

Fighting Viral and Bacterial Infections

As is so often the case the best offense is a good defence. Preventive medicine cut cost and saves lives. Cannabis has opened up many practicle applications for improving clinical conditions. Treatments vary in competition delivery method and availability depending on application.

Killing Harmful Bacteria

Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is an antibiotic resistant form of bacteria.
Scientists discovered that CBG, which has no psychoactive properties, is highly effective at eliminating MRSA microbes and “persister” cells that are responsible for repeat infections.

Fighting Viral Infection

The mode of antiviral activity has been determined. beta-Pinenene and Limonene reduced viral infectivity of various strains.  Monoterpenes revealed only moderate antiviral effects. The results show that treating cells prior infection or immidiately after entry of virus into cells can prevent infection by direct interaction with free virus particles.
The resaech suggest that monoterpenes exhibit synergetic activity in the early phase of viral multiplication and might be used as potential antiviral agents.

Increasing Immune Response

The Endocannabinoid system is partially responsible for regulating the immune response Cannabinoids Terpenes and Flavonoids can increase our immune functions and prevent viral and bacterial infections.

Some terpenes stimulate the innate immune system by enhancing our phagocyte response to pathogens.

Reducing Symptoms

Cannabis can act as a bronchodilator and open the airways of the lungs by relaxing bronchial muscles. fighting bronchial irritation with full spectrum oil including alpha-pinene, a known bronchodilator, could support easier breathing and reduce theorasic distress.

Delivery Methods

While production and Scalability are the main influencers of the market delivery method is also being debated. It is important to follow a good hyginic path of production unhynered by pathogens all the way down to the consumer or patient. Some current habits and methods are not best suited for homoginizing treatment and keeping infection at Bay. It is up to practitioners and consumers to be fully informed.

Terpenes In Nature

What are Terpenes 

Lately there is much hype about terpenes. But few really understand what they are and where they are found. Nature is full of terpenes. 

Some natural terpenes are well known, for example Linalool is found in lavender. Linalool is widely known for the stress-relieving, anti-anxiety, and anti-depressant effects. Many relate these characteristics to the flower, but it is the terpene’s effect.

 Terpene Origin 

So where do these terpenes come from? Plants produce various types of metabolites. Terpenoids are a product of the chloroplast’s secondary metabolism. Terpenes and cannabinoids are produced within the trichome cells through biosynthesis. Terpenes act like the plant’s “hormones”. Plants also use these terpenes to protect them against fungus and bacteria. Terpenes also attract pollinating insects. 

Terpene Properties 

Terpenoids are biomolecules made up of multiple isoprenes (Hydrocarbons). These terpenoids can be linear, cyclical, or both. When a terpenoids is modified with a functional group it is referred to as terpenes. Terpenes are categorized by size. C5H8 Monoterpene (C5H8)2 Sesquiterpene (C5H8)3 Diterpene (C5H8)4 Sesterterpene (C5H8)5 Teterpenes, and so on.

Each terpene behaves differently based on the category and functional group. Many Have pharmacological And biological activities. These terpenes work on our endocannabinoid system In a process called the Entourage Effect.

Usefulness 

Terpenes have been around as long as plants existed,subsequently, they have been exploited by humans. We have unknowingly used terpenes throughout history. There is even evidence that ancient Egyptians enjoying terpenes. Terpenes help to regulate cannabinoids within the endocannabinoid system.  

Applying Terpenes

Making use of terpenes has proven beneficial. Before fully Harnessing the power of terpenes the dots need to be connected in terms of pharmacology.

Having a better understanding of terpenes already improved our lives. As our understanding increases, there is no doubt these natural terpenes will assist more fields.