All posts by Terpene TLV

Quantitative Cannabis Profiling Techniques

By understanding the theory behind analysis methods in the Cannabis Industry, we can talk about which are favored by cannabis labs and for what application.

Preferred Method

High pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC), usually paired with mass spectrometry (MS), is one of the most popular testing methods used to test for the potency and composition in a Cannabis strain or byproduct. 

In this process, cannabis products are mixed into a solvent solution and pass through an instrument filled with tubular tunnels. Matrices throughout these tubes separate the individual components by Polarity, Ionic Strength and Molecular Size.

High Pressure Liquid Chromatography

HPLC is a nondestructive method using liquid solvent to detect elemental composition. Heating is not necessary for HPLC. Heating cannabinoids cause a Decarboxylation Reaction whereby cannabinoid acids lose a -COOH group and transform biological function and potentially cause inaccurate readings. Cannabinoid Detection through HPLC will be more likely to give an accurate neutral-acidic cannabinoid profile than with gas chromatography (GC).

Mass Spectrometry 

MS is normally paired with chromatography methods as it is able to sort components by their mass-to-charge ratio and then give a readout as to the molecular composition. After the mixture is separated by how quickly it passes through the matrix, MS can detect the different components at each speed. More specifically, MS measures and separates components by their mass-to-charge ratio through processes involving ionization and being subjected to electric or magnetic fields. The results are then displayed as a spectra, which can be easily compared to known data to confirm your results. The mass spectrometer is also useful for the detection of pesticides, herbicides, and fungicides as well as residual industrial solvents.

Gas Chromatography 

In GC,  the sample is vaporized to the gas phase rather remaining in the liquid phase. This Method involves the use of heat and is better utilized to check for the presence of volatile terpenes or residual solvents. Flame Ionization Detection (FID) specifically generates ions through combustion of the sample material with a hydrogen flame. This generates differently charged ions based on the composition of  sample material and through quantifying these ions, various molecular compounds and their concentrations can be identified.

Using GC paired with (FID) and a headspace autosampler unit for uniform and efficient detection. It is possible to profile cannabis products and determine the Relative Potency effectively. 

It is important to note FID measures only organic species, while MS can measure inorganic and organic species. While both methods generate ions, MS can do so in solid, liquid, and gas phase samples using several ionization methods. 

Thin-layer Chromatography

TLC method, consists of stationary phase and mobile phase. Unlike previous methods this one does not rely on complicated instruments and utilizes basic chemical properties to provide an approximation of Cannabinoids. This method is visual, inexpensive and time consuming.  Extracted cannabinoids using solvent, apply them to the chromatography plate matrix, let the compounds separate, dye the plate, and see the resulting cannabinoid compounds. Using multiple results, develop a calibrated ruler.

Polymerase Chain Reaction

PCR amplifies a Specific Region of a DNA strand (Target) commonly used fluorescent dye binds double-stranded DNA molecules by intercalating between the DNA bases. It is used in quantitative PCR because the fluorescence can be measured at the end of each amplification cycle to determine, relatively or absolutely, how much DNA has been amplified. While PCR paired with a fluorescence is not ideal for mycotoxin detection it is increasingly popular due to recent automation of the process. 

New quantitative and analytical techniques are constantly developed directed towards cannabis research. Due to these techniques we are able to further biological understanding of cannabis. Understanding the main principles behind these techniques is crucial.

Creating Medicine from Cannabis

Cannabis’s unique medicinal properties and Active Compounds are widely documented. Cannabinoids interact within the Endocannabinoid System. THC has proven medical benefits in particular formulations. The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has approved THC-based medications, dronabinol and nabilone, prescribed in pill form for nausea and appetite treatment, aiding cancer and AIDS patients.

In addition, several other cannabis -based medications have been approved or are undergoing clinical trials. Nabiximols, a mouth spray that is currently available for treating the spasticity and neuropathic pain that may accompany multiple sclerosis, combines THC with CBD.

The FDA also approved a CBD-based liquid medication called Epidiolex® for the treatment of severe childhood epilepsy, specifically, Dravet syndrome and Lennox-Gastaut syndrome. The medication is being delivered with reliable dosage and reproducible route.

Cannabis posses nitrogenous compounds, amino acids, proteins, glycoproteins, enzymes, sugars and related compounds, hydrocarbons, alcohols, acids, esters, aldehydes, ketones, fatty acids, lactones, steroids, terpenes, non-cannabinoid phenols, flavonoids, vitamins and pigments already used in Botanical Medicine and are yet to be empirically proven and peer reviewed. While some of these compounds are found in other Botanical Sources, it is likely that there are unique combinations found only in cannabis.

As we study this remarkable plant further, more constituents are showing promise for new and revolutionary Drug Delivery systems and Antibacterial Activities

Clearly, more research is needed from the scientific community to produce appropriate, safe utilization of cannabis. However, the FDA does not recognize the use of medical applications of cannabis. There is no reason to regulate cannabis derived medicine any different than general recommendations on studying botanicals.

Convoluted regulation of cannabis makes funding for research lacking. Independent Cannabis research cannot be done by companies as they are hindered from scaling and acquiring credit. In addition, concerns over conflicts of interest as seen with traditional drug company-sponsored studies.

In order to unlock cannabis potential cannabis possession should be deregulated so academic institutions can dedicate lab time for cannabis research.

Digital Channels need to be more lenient to discussion and allow ideas to spread and be refined. Unjustified resistance to cannabis for medical and recreational use has to be discarded. It is time regulative, communication and banking systems reform their attitude towards cannabis. As a global community we have proved that we can work fast if necessary. If you are interested in sharing cannabis related ideas or identify potential collaborations feel free to contact us privately.

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Social Advertising of Cannabis

Social advertising is the process of creating clickable ads to reach target audiences via social media platforms. Companies use social advertising campaigns to build brand awareness and generate sales revenue.

It is clear that social media is a critical form of advertising for cannabis companies, however, the reality of running a social media account for a cannabis company is more like living in an alternate reality.

The amount of time and effort dedicated to producing worthy content for these networks is a gamble. Months and years of work can be wiped out with little transparency according to “Community Standards”. Many cannabis businesses find it worth the risk because of the scale of user interaction; so many people rely on social media for their news and information.

Even companies who are listed on the stock exchange had their accounts shut down by mainstream social networks and associated search engines. Many online stakeholders are complicit.  

The vast power technological giants gained under the radar allow them to influence business and politics, effectively providing swiping powers to veto any action they deem inappropriate. While the world largely operates on democratic values, the power obtained by social networks was gained by uniformed users seeking instant gratification provided by these private and publicly traded companies.

These companies act as a cartel to regulate the price of traffic and alter the topic of conversation.

While there are some cannabis large corporations, the majority of cannabis businesses are small to medium in scale. Here are some tips on how to stay relevant and maintain your online presence.   

Stay Diverse 

When you have many channels driving traffic you are less affected by one particular channel. Cannabis Policies vary from platform to platform, while non promote the content some are more forgiving than others.

Customized Uploads

Users on various platforms consume content differently and therefore react differently to content. What may be a success on one platform can have negative consequences and penalties on another. Choose specific content for each platform and hope your exposure is not affected. 

Added Value 

Create content with added value, educate, inform or spread positivity.  Always consider your customer’s perspective and allow it to shape your future posts. Never underestimate the value of free resources or convenience. 

Request Action 

Request positive interactions Like Shares and Signups. These actions will signal the platform that your content is a welcome addition to the network. While these actions indicate interest, the post does not belong to you and can be deleted by platform staff.

Reacting Correctly 

If any violation occurs delete the post and stay off the network for 7-10 days consecutively. Do Not be tempted by messages urging you to login. These platforms rely on constant uploading to provide an environment that lewres users to engage more. On a large scale the Cannabis Industry has the ability to directly and inadvertently affect profitability and user engagement. 

Email List

As a society we are just beginning to understand the value of data. Allowing the platforms to control your company’s data is giving away assets. Be prepared, Collect Data independently so you can communicate with your customers directly.  

Forget about ROI 

There are algorithms that determine the price for every media slot and monitor ad performance, outliers are brought to marketing teams who ensure the advertisement conforms to their standards “improving advertising relevance”. The best any advertiser in the cannabis field can hope for is increased brand awareness without additional penalties.

While the world is becoming dependent on online services, excluding cannabis companies from mainstream communication channels and credit lines is hindering growth and extending the cannabis prohibition into the 22nd century. 

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Dry Your Cannabis Crop: Curing Impacts Your Profitability

Cannabis companies have many challenges including Grow Techniques, Marketing Strategies, Product development, and Regulation Costs.

In order to scale a cannabis business the shelf-life and quality of the product is paramount. Producers must balance when preserving their product during times of lower supply:

Dry incrementally and lose yields to time, or dry quickly and lose yields to heat and attrition.

Drying Techniques 

There are several techniques with varying efficiency and quality. Drying quickly can burn off valuable Terpenes. In order to understand how to properly cure your cannabis flower lets understand how slow curing is achieved.

Natural Cure 

Cut down your plant, trim away extra fan leaves. You want to leave more in very dry areas. Cut off as much as you can in humid areas, to help speed up the drying process and prevent mold.

  • Dry (Under 30% Relative Humidity) – leave more leaves on your plant while trimming to help slow down the drying process. The more plant matter is left behind, the slower the buds dry. 
  • Average Humidity – perfect for hanging your cannabis upside down to dry
  • Humid (Over 60% Relative Humidity) –  separate buds from branches after trimming and place them on a drying rack or mesh to help them dry while avoiding mold.

Dry until outsides of buds feel dry to the touch, and smaller stems snap instead of bend prior to jaring. Remember to regularly inspect jared cannabis.

For perfect control over the drying process humidity and temperature control racks are available for purchase.

Heat Cure

Belt dryers primarily use hot airflow pulled from above via vacuum, creating localized air streams and wet spots. Tumbler and belt dryers are trendy but come with a few unfortunate set-backs. While some heat Decarboxylates Cannabinoids, high heat drying destroys volatiles, and consumes huge amounts of energy and space. 

One solution is a circular fluid bed-base. It is a relatively compact technology, and becoming a viable option for scaling. As a system, the fluid bed solution functions by intaking and shredding whole plants. The product is suspended over air-streams, increasing the surface area of product exposed to dry air, separating fibrous material, and packaging the extracted biomass into bulk bags. Blending Extracted Sprays are used to homogenize the flavor of smoking products prior to retail. Homogenization is important, unevenly dried hemp means extra degradation, moisture and microbes.

Freeze Cure 

Freeze the cannabis or industrial hemp to -35oC for over 10 hours to preserve the shape and integrity. The frozen product is placed under vacuum pressure in order to facilitate sublimation. Sublimation is a process during which a solid is turned into a gas, skipping the liquid stage in between. Controlled radiant heat is applied during this process, converting the frozen moisture in the product directly into vapor. The vapor is condensed back into a solid and collected in the ice bank. The ice in the ice bank is melted and drained from the ice bank in the form of a hydrosol liquid. Any terpenes lost in the sublimation process can be reclaimed from the hydrosol to be used in other processed terpene infused products.


CO2 Extraction 

Supercritical CO2technology delivers unparalleled terpene and cannabinoid Extraction capabilities. To perform this extraction, cannabis must be ground and placed into an extraction vessel. CO2 gas at high temperature and pressure is produced. A pump then forces supercritical CO2 into the extraction vessel where it meets the plant and breaks the trichomes allowing it to dissolve part of the plant material.

Solvent Extraction 

Solvent extraction is a process in which compounds are separated based on their relative solubilities. This treatment method involves using solvents with the ability to dissolve desired substance. The process of solvent distillation purifies the substance. Methods for extraction may vary depending on your equipment solvent and extraction goal.

High pressure extraction

High pressure extraction systems achieve high yields quickly. This extraction relies on thermodynamic principles to extract oils without the use of solvents. Biomass under 1.26 kg / s conditions cause the trichome rupture and produce shatter, cannabutter or cannabis oil. The moisture within the flower helps decrease viscosity so the oils can flow better.  The majority of lost terpenes and trichomes are captured and returned on batch-by-batch bases. This method retains more terpenes, CBD & THC.

Dedicated To Results

Each of the methods forementioned have advantages for specific applications and cannabis derived products. Techniques used for bulk whole flower without destroying the contents or structure of the flower are constantly improved and are able to dry diverse product evenly. As product development advances new technologies are utilized in the cannabis industry. For cannabis genetic conosures and producers there several ways to preserve and consume cannabis.

Now that cannabis is being grown in volume, the need for large scale processing with controlled and efficient curing protocols is crucial. Significantly improve bulk processing in cannabis.

Basic Legalization Terms You Need to Know

Drug liberalization is the process of eliminating, reducing or updating cannabis laws. There are numerous models to consider. These varying cannabis models satisfy various stakeholders. In order to better understand the added value of any reform, the terminology must be clearly understood. 

Cannabis Normalization deals with moral implications of cannabis use. When is cannabis beneficial? Where should cannabis be obtained? What are the benefits of industrial hemp? How should cannabis be regulated? In which situations is it appropriate to consume cannabis? The process aims to rewrite prohibition laws to reflect Society’s Current Values

Rescheduling cannabis is a crucial step towards cannabis normalization. Currently cannabis is designated Schedule 1 and considered to have no therapeutic value despite ample Evidence of the contrary. This designation makes it difficult to conduct research or consume. Rescheduling would allow the government to recognizing cannabis, but wouldn’t legalize

Decriminalization refers to reducing or eliminating criminal prosecution. Many normative citizens with recreational or medical cannabis use might be fined, provided rehabilitation or added to surveillance lists.    

Regulating the Cannabis Market allows cannabis distribution to be controlled and taxed appropriately as any other business. Regulating the market allows access to the international banking system and scaling opportunities. 

While there is a need in regulation and Safety Protocols, over-regulating can be devastating. Limiting production, overtaxing and unreasonable requests/requirements promote anti-competitive behavior, low profit margins or overpricing. Incorrectly legalizing cannabis can stomp industry growth and research.

Deregulation of cannabis refers to removal of Regulations and Restrictions. Some are concerned that allowing home grown cannabis will wipe out the bigger cannabis companies. The reality is that the market is big enough to allow everyone to benefit.   

Allowing home grow for personal use fully liberates and legalizes cannabis.

It is up to the regulator to find a balance of regulation that ensures safety while allowing for a free competitive market with scaling capabilities. 

Several locations that completely deregulated and legalized cannabis have noted diminished adolescent use, boost in productivity and lower violent crimes.

Many are aiming to use the public’s naivety to secure special interests. It is up to citizens and corporations to act responsibly.

Feminized Seeds – All About Cannabis Seeds

Feminized seeds are seeds which have been created by breeding two Female Plants. It is a basic Ethnoecology

To create feminized seed a female pollen drop must be achieved. The pollen is collected and dusted onto other female plants. This pollination will always result in feminized seeds, as the female plant will not pass on a Y chromosome. Although there are mostly female seeds, some express male traits. If not caught early one plant can pollinate many other female cannabis plants.⁠

⁠When you pollinate the same Phenotype of a strain that you collected the pollen from that is referred to as backcrossing, sometimes denoted as a S1. Cross pollination of different strains is referred to as a F1 Reversal and denoted as F1R.⁠

⁠Inducing stress results in increased gibberelin hormone production inducing pollen drop. Breeding using colloidal silver to cause stress will pass on bad traits. A properly done reversal using gibberellic acid will not pass on bad traits such as hermaphroditism, rather, Enhance clone traits.⁠

⁠The goal is to increase gibberelin production while decreasing ethylene production. This will create the Right Conditions for the female plants to drop pollen without stress or passing on undesirable traits. A specialized solution is diluted with water and sprayed onto the plants, that process is repeated until pollen sacks develop. A reversal is never permanent. Changing the sex of the plant is only temporary and does not alter the DNA. Once you stop spraying you have roughly 6 weeks until the plant reverts back to female.⁠

While feminized seeds are cost effective, they guarantee near 100% female crops allowing for no male specimens to discard. Feminized seeds are not the appropriate choice if your aim is to produce seeds and Alter Genetic Strains.

Cannabis Genetics can get very convoluted on a macro scale but creating feminized seeds is relatively easy.

Forms and Delivery Methods of Cannabis Isolates

Cannabinoid Isolates

Highly pure isolated cannabinoid. There are no other Cannabinoids, Terpenes and Flavonoids. Pure cannabinoid is highly concentrated and needs to be diluted prior to use. Cannabis is the only plant that produces cannabinoids safe for human consumption.

THC Isolate 


The most common cannabinoid referred to when talking about cannabis. THC interacts within the endocannabinoid system to alter physiology. THC Delta 9 will not crystallize but can be used in a chemical reaction to form crystalline product for various purposes. 

Delta -8

Delta-8 THC is a variation of delta-9 THC with some notable differences. While the two share many similar properties, such as reportedly stimulating appetite, reducing nausea, and soothing pain, delta-8-THC tends to exhibit a lower psychotropic potency. This cannabinoid is Extracted from Industrial Hemp Oil.

Methods of consumption include inhalation via combustion or vape,edibles, oils and topicals.

CBD Isolate

CBD isolate can be oil or crystalline form that contains 99% pure CBD and can be delivered using several methods for specific applications.


is absorbed by the mucous membranes and delivered directly to the bloodstream, bypassing the digestive system and liver to provide more immediate and effective relief. 

Topical Oil 

Used in various cosmetic, skincare and pain relieving creams for direct application to the area of treatment via Transdermal Absorption

For topical companies, it is fairly simple to incorporate CBD isolate to product lines, today many have the option to topically apply CBD to the area of treatment.


CBD isolate can be mixed with terpenes to create Enhanced CBD concentrates that can be vaped or dabbed. The isolate can also be made into crystal slabs that can be dabbed on a traditional oil rig. 


CBD isolates can mix with a variety of ingredients to create CBD-infused food and beverages.

CBD is not absorbed very well by the gastrointestinal tract, it has a low oral bioavailability. In order to increase bioavailability, CBD isolate can be dissolved in oil, increasing its chances of permeating the gastrointestinal system and reaching the bloodstream. 

Crystalline CBD can be measured and put into capsules or pills, allowing accurate ingestion and dosing. The final effect would be determined by the liver function. 

Terpene Isolates

These are highly concentrated terpenes Sourced from cannabis or other botanical. These terpenes have a wide range of industrial and medical benefits. Pure Isolates are very concentrated and are hazardous, however they have many benefits when at correct concentrations. 

Terpene Formulations

Terpene isolates precisely mixed at safe concentrations specifically for sensory and pharmacological effect. Some formulations mimic natural cannabis concentrations while others formulated for mental or physical effects. These formulations enhance and balance cannabinoids for individuals. Manufacturers use terpenes to create the flavors and scents of many everyday Products.

Full-spectrum Cannabis Extracts

Cannabinoids and terpenes work synergistically together to produce the desired effects on the endocannabinoid system. There is much R&D associated with producing full spectrum products. It is very important to choose the correct ingredients. 

Cannabis Concentrates 

Cannabis concentrates are products made by separating resin from the flowers in order to extract the maximum amount of cannabinoids and terpenes. Examples include: ShatterWax/Budder, CO2 Oil, Rosin, Kief, Crumble, Live Resin and hash

Cannabis concentrates stick to the natural concentrations of Active Cannabis Compounds.

Cannabis is diverse due to genetics and worldwide regulations, some want to homogenize the experience while others enjoy the diversity. No matter what your opinion is, Legalizion and Deregulation of this harmless plant is overdue. With deregulation much more research can be done which can impact many industries. 

A Review of Cannabis Diving Guidelines

It is well known that many divers are using cannabis between dives. Today’s guidelines are out of date. Currently, there is no distinction between alcohol and cannabis despite working on different mechanisms.

Diving is done using the buddy system,operating together as a single unit to monitor and help each other. In order to protect your partner, it is paramount to ensure your own safety while diving.

It is thought that the psychoactive effects of cannabis being the main acute safety concern during diving. There are also potential benefits to cannabinoid use around dives.

While being a potent bronchodilator and anti-inflammatory agent, CDB is not intoxicating. There is little research about what other physiological effects CBD would have on a diver’s body at pressure. This raises the question regarding effects of non-intoxicating cannabinoids prior to a dive.

Nitrogen Narcosis

Nitrogen narcosis can occur diving at deep depths. Certain gasses at high pressure cause an altered diver’s consciousness leading to poor judgment, panic, anxiety, difficulty concentrating, hallucinations or feelings of elation and euphoria. Narcosis increases the risk of dive errors; forgetting to check air supply, depth or neglecting dive buddy.

Breathing compressed air greater than atmospheric pressure increases the partial pressures of atmospheric gases, in the blood. Excess Nitrogen dissolved in the lipid bilayer of cell membranes causes narcosis. The effect of narcosis on the body takes place in the central nervous system.

Cannabinoids have been shown to protect nerve cells against damage by mediated cannabinoid receptor interaction. Cannabis users have higher cerebral blood flow and extract more oxygen from brain blood flow. Research is yet to understand how this mechanism works at depth and how it may affect nitrogen narcosis. 

Central Nervous System 

The central nervous system controls general homeostasis and metabolic functions. Endocannabinoid receptors located in the central nervous system finetune appetite, mood, respiration, brain function and reproduction. 

There are over 150 Cannabinoids and countless Terpenes in cannabis . Each compound interacts with the cannabinoid receptors within the Endocannabinoid System

Cannabinoids impact the lungs via CB1 and CB2 receptors located in respiratory tissue.

In addition to dose-dependent blood pressure, pulse and respiratory rate reduction; cannabinoid stimulation can increase cerebral blood flow during an induced ischemia and act as a neuroprotective at atmospheric pressure. 

CO2 Tolerance

Normal breathing involves an exchange between oxygen into the lungs and carbon dioxide out. Hyperventilation causes an imbalance in the amount of oxygen and carbon dioxide. Low CO2 levels causes narrowing of the blood vessels to the brain responsible for the symptoms of hyperventilation. A higher CO2 tolerance will equate to a more regulated breathing pattern, conversely, A low CO2 set point will stimulate you to over breath while diving.

CO2 in the blood plays an important role in buffering hydrogen ions and lactic acid production. 

Altering CO2 sensitivity during specific tasks can increase performance and reduce lactic acid production.

Muscle Relaxant 

Cannabis derived products are effective at treating chronic pain and calming muscle spasms .Cannabis is an anti-inflammatory and analgesic (pain-reliever) with various terpenes that interact with the endocannabinoid system to influence how pain is interpreted. Post diving consumption can alleviate fatigue.


The relationship between cannabis and anxiety is complicated and mostly dose dependent, at lower doses, cannabis seems to reduce anxiety; at higher doses, it seems to worsen it. 

Terpenes interact with cannabinoids and alter their function. Linalool commonly found in lavender enhances relaxation properties of cannabis.

Cannabis can reduce anxiety allowing for slower more conserved oxigen. 

Performance Enhancing

Cannabis has been scientifically proven to be performance enhancing during freediving. The physco-tropic effects alter the bronchial sacs in the lungs allowing for a slower absorption of oxygen into the blood. This effect is also enhanced due to the pressures of diving. However, the effect diminishes proportionally with the amount of cannabis consumption.

Cannabinoid Consumption 

THC is a bronchoconstrictor CBD is a bronchodilator. Cannabis is composed of many Compounds which may be helpful to divers.

While inhaling burning material into your lungs is generally bad for you, cannabis can be ingested by other means. Individual abilities to function under the influence of mood altering agents vary widely.

The diving community is quick to dismiss cannabis. due to its reputation without fully understanding the pharmacology of these compounds under pressure.

Ginger and Its Constituents: Natural Aspirin and More

A new line of Terpenes

Ginger has been effectively used in Traditional Medicine. Research supports and substantiates its results. New findings are unveiling a wide range of clinical applications for phytochemicals found in plant-roots. More research can unveil many new benefits.

Specifically, ginger (Zingiber officinale) contains a mixture of Volatile Oil that consist mainly of monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes.


Gingerol is responsible for the pungent fresh aroma of ginger root.

Found in fresh ginger and activates spice receptors on the tongue.


The product of a dehydration reaction gingerol undergoes forming shogaols.


Less pungent and has a spicy-sweet aroma.

The main sesquiterpene component of fragrant essential oil

Detectable amounts of bisabolene β-sesquiphellandrene, farnesene, β-phellandrene, cineol, and citral are also present in the terpene profile.


Serotonin is transported by platelets and released upon activation. This induces constriction of blood vessels and enhances platelet aggregation. 

Studies have demonstrated that gingerols inhibit COX-1 receptors, preventing serotonin release,subsequent platelet aggregation and clot formation. 

In addition,gingerol increases inotropic effect accompanied with vasodilation by acting on the beta receptors located on the cell walls in the heart and arteries. 

Though gingerol is a COX-1 inhibitor like aspirin, it does not cause gastric mucosal damage and bleeding. Ginger can prevent clot formation without risk gastric bleeding, acting like a natural aspirin. 

Pre-treatment with ginger followed by co-administration of warfarin did not affect warfarin pharmacokinetics. 


Gingerol and shogaol class of compounds interact with several pathways directly responsible for nausea, vomiting and digestion. Ginger is a natural potent antiemetic (prevents nausea). These terpenes enhance gastric emptying and the associated effect for extended release formulations are still being studied.


Active Constituents of ginger have antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. 

Ginger extract directly suppresses chemokine (signaling proteins) production from synoviocytes, chondrocytes, and leukocytes.

Gingerol actively inhibits the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines on the Lipopolysaccharide outer membrane of gram negative bacteria stimulated macrophages.

These terpenes treat inflammation without interfering with the antigen presenting function of macrophages.


Ginger directly suppresses chemokine and partially controls immune response. These terpenes may affect the minimal inhibitory concentration and exhibit synergy with antibiotics, since it was shown that treatment with gingerols increased bacterial Membrane Permeability and facilitated aminoglycoside entry allowing for a more effective antibiotic treatment. 


Ginger terpenes exhibit anticancer activity against several types of cancers through cell rupture and apoptosis. Ginger is not a cure for cancer but understanding the mechanisms and pathways of function can bring researchers closer to treatment.

Terpene mediated Delivery

Gingerol is one of the many terpenes that can be used for more effective drug-delivery and bioavailability. Nonpolar terpenes such as Limonene provide better enhancement for lipophilic drugs than do polar terpenes. Conversely, terpenes containing polar groups such as menthol and 1,8-cineole provide better enhancement for hydrophilic drugs. 


It is important to note that all the aforementioned effects noted are first-pass metabolism whereby the terpene concentrations are administered orally, pass the liver and get greatly altered prior to reaching the systemic circulation. Vaporization of terpenes is becoming increasingly popular globally.


A common delivery method is vaporization. This method allows accurate and direct dosing as regulated amounts of terpenes directly enter circulation prior to arriving at the liver, increasing bioavailability. There is not much literature regarding second-pass gingerol metabolism. Furthermore, how these particular terpenes interact with Cannabinoids need to be observed. 


While some terpenes found in ginger are found in cannabis, gingerol is not found in cannabis. Gingerol class terpenes have synergistic effects in combination with cannabinoids. We do not know how these particular terpenes interact with cannabinoids as part of the Entourage Effect.

Chemical Properties

Formula: C17H26O4

Molar mass: 294.38 g/mol

Density: 1100 kg/m³

Boiling point: 353°C

Chemical Structure