All posts by Terpene TLV

Feminized Seeds – All About Cannabis Seeds

Feminized seeds are seeds which have been created by breeding two Female Plants. It is a basic Ethnoecology

To create feminized seed a female pollen drop must be achieved. The pollen is collected and dusted onto other female plants. This pollination will always result in feminized seeds, as the female plant will not pass on a Y chromosome. Although there are mostly female seeds, some express male traits. If not caught early one plant can pollinate many other female cannabis plants.⁠

⁠When you pollinate the same Phenotype of a strain that you collected the pollen from that is referred to as backcrossing, sometimes denoted as a S1. Cross pollination of different strains is referred to as a F1 Reversal and denoted as F1R.⁠

⁠Inducing stress results in increased gibberelin hormone production inducing pollen drop. Breeding using colloidal silver to cause stress will pass on bad traits. A properly done reversal using gibberellic acid will not pass on bad traits such as hermaphroditism, rather, Enhance clone traits.⁠

⁠The goal is to increase gibberelin production while decreasing ethylene production. This will create the Right Conditions for the female plants to drop pollen without stress or passing on undesirable traits. A specialized solution is diluted with water and sprayed onto the plants, that process is repeated until pollen sacks develop. A reversal is never permanent. Changing the sex of the plant is only temporary and does not alter the DNA. Once you stop spraying you have roughly 6 weeks until the plant reverts back to female.⁠

While feminized seeds are cost effective, they guarantee near 100% female crops allowing for no male specimens to discard. Feminized seeds are not the appropriate choice if your aim is to produce seeds and Alter Genetic Strains.

Cannabis Genetics can get very convoluted on a macro scale but creating feminized seeds is relatively easy.

Forms and Delivery Methods of Cannabis Isolates

Cannabinoid Isolates

Highly pure isolated cannabinoid. There are no other Cannabinoids, Terpenes and Flavonoids. Pure cannabinoid is highly concentrated and needs to be diluted prior to use. Cannabis is the only plant that produces cannabinoids safe for human consumption.

THC Isolate 

Delta-9

The most common cannabinoid referred to when talking about cannabis. THC interacts within the endocannabinoid system to alter physiology. THC Delta 9 will not crystallize but can be used in a chemical reaction to form crystalline product for various purposes. 

Delta -8

Delta-8 THC is a variation of delta-9 THC with some notable differences. While the two share many similar properties, such as reportedly stimulating appetite, reducing nausea, and soothing pain, delta-8-THC tends to exhibit a lower psychotropic potency. This cannabinoid is Extracted from Industrial Hemp Oil.

Methods of consumption include inhalation via combustion or vape,edibles, oils and topicals.

CBD Isolate

CBD isolate can be oil or crystalline form that contains 99% pure CBD and can be delivered using several methods for specific applications.

Sublingual

is absorbed by the mucous membranes and delivered directly to the bloodstream, bypassing the digestive system and liver to provide more immediate and effective relief. 

Topical Oil 

Used in various cosmetic, skincare and pain relieving creams for direct application to the area of treatment via Transdermal Absorption

For topical companies, it is fairly simple to incorporate CBD isolate to product lines, today many have the option to topically apply CBD to the area of treatment.

Inhalation

CBD isolate can be mixed with terpenes to create Enhanced CBD concentrates that can be vaped or dabbed. The isolate can also be made into crystal slabs that can be dabbed on a traditional oil rig. 

Ingestion

CBD isolates can mix with a variety of ingredients to create CBD-infused food and beverages.

CBD is not absorbed very well by the gastrointestinal tract, it has a low oral bioavailability. In order to increase bioavailability, CBD isolate can be dissolved in oil, increasing its chances of permeating the gastrointestinal system and reaching the bloodstream. 

Crystalline CBD can be measured and put into capsules or pills, allowing accurate ingestion and dosing. The final effect would be determined by the liver function. 

Terpene Isolates

These are highly concentrated terpenes Sourced from cannabis or other botanical. These terpenes have a wide range of industrial and medical benefits. Pure Isolates are very concentrated and are hazardous, however they have many benefits when at correct concentrations. 

Terpene Formulations

Terpene isolates precisely mixed at safe concentrations specifically for sensory and pharmacological effect. Some formulations mimic natural cannabis concentrations while others formulated for mental or physical effects. These formulations enhance and balance cannabinoids for individuals. Manufacturers use terpenes to create the flavors and scents of many everyday Products.

Full-spectrum Cannabis Extracts

Cannabinoids and terpenes work synergistically together to produce the desired effects on the endocannabinoid system. There is much R&D associated with producing full spectrum products. It is very important to choose the correct ingredients. 

Cannabis Concentrates 

Cannabis concentrates are products made by separating resin from the flowers in order to extract the maximum amount of cannabinoids and terpenes. Examples include: ShatterWax/Budder, CO2 Oil, Rosin, Kief, Crumble, Live Resin and hash

Cannabis concentrates stick to the natural concentrations of Active Cannabis Compounds.

Cannabis is diverse due to genetics and worldwide regulations, some want to homogenize the experience while others enjoy the diversity. No matter what your opinion is, Legalizion and Deregulation of this harmless plant is overdue. With deregulation much more research can be done which can impact many industries. 

A Review of Cannabis Diving Guidelines

It is well known that many divers are using cannabis between dives. Today’s guidelines are out of date. Currently, there is no distinction between alcohol and cannabis despite working on different mechanisms.

Diving is done using the buddy system,operating together as a single unit to monitor and help each other. In order to protect your partner, it is paramount to ensure your own safety while diving.

It is thought that the psychoactive effects of cannabis being the main acute safety concern during diving. There are also potential benefits to cannabinoid use around dives.

While being a potent bronchodilator and anti-inflammatory agent, CDB is not intoxicating. There is little research about what other physiological effects CBD would have on a diver’s body at pressure. This raises the question regarding effects of non-intoxicating cannabinoids prior to a dive.

Nitrogen Narcosis

Nitrogen narcosis can occur diving at deep depths. Certain gasses at high pressure cause an altered diver’s consciousness leading to poor judgment, panic, anxiety, difficulty concentrating, hallucinations or feelings of elation and euphoria. Narcosis increases the risk of dive errors; forgetting to check air supply, depth or neglecting dive buddy.

Breathing compressed air greater than atmospheric pressure increases the partial pressures of atmospheric gases, in the blood. Excess Nitrogen dissolved in the lipid bilayer of cell membranes causes narcosis. The effect of narcosis on the body takes place in the central nervous system.

Cannabinoids have been shown to protect nerve cells against damage by mediated cannabinoid receptor interaction. Cannabis users have higher cerebral blood flow and extract more oxygen from brain blood flow. Research is yet to understand how this mechanism works at depth and how it may affect nitrogen narcosis. 

Central Nervous System 

The central nervous system controls general homeostasis and metabolic functions. Endocannabinoid receptors located in the central nervous system finetune appetite, mood, respiration, brain function and reproduction. 

There are over 150 Cannabinoids and countless Terpenes in cannabis . Each compound interacts with the cannabinoid receptors within the Endocannabinoid System

Cannabinoids impact the lungs via CB1 and CB2 receptors located in respiratory tissue.

In addition to dose-dependent blood pressure, pulse and respiratory rate reduction; cannabinoid stimulation can increase cerebral blood flow during an induced ischemia and act as a neuroprotective at atmospheric pressure. 

CO2 Tolerance

Normal breathing involves an exchange between oxygen into the lungs and carbon dioxide out. Hyperventilation causes an imbalance in the amount of oxygen and carbon dioxide. Low CO2 levels causes narrowing of the blood vessels to the brain responsible for the symptoms of hyperventilation. A higher CO2 tolerance will equate to a more regulated breathing pattern, conversely, A low CO2 set point will stimulate you to over breath while diving.

CO2 in the blood plays an important role in buffering hydrogen ions and lactic acid production. 

Altering CO2 sensitivity during specific tasks can increase performance and reduce lactic acid production.

Muscle Relaxant 

Cannabis derived products are effective at treating chronic pain and calming muscle spasms .Cannabis is an anti-inflammatory and analgesic (pain-reliever) with various terpenes that interact with the endocannabinoid system to influence how pain is interpreted. Post diving consumption can alleviate fatigue.

Anti-anxiety

The relationship between cannabis and anxiety is complicated and mostly dose dependent, at lower doses, cannabis seems to reduce anxiety; at higher doses, it seems to worsen it. 

Terpenes interact with cannabinoids and alter their function. Linalool commonly found in lavender enhances relaxation properties of cannabis.

Cannabis can reduce anxiety allowing for slower more conserved oxigen. 

Performance Enhancing

Cannabis has been scientifically proven to be performance enhancing during freediving. The physco-tropic effects alter the bronchial sacs in the lungs allowing for a slower absorption of oxygen into the blood. This effect is also enhanced due to the pressures of diving. However, the effect diminishes proportionally with the amount of cannabis consumption.

Cannabinoid Consumption 

THC is a bronchoconstrictor CBD is a bronchodilator. Cannabis is composed of many Compounds which may be helpful to divers.

While inhaling burning material into your lungs is generally bad for you, cannabis can be ingested by other means. Individual abilities to function under the influence of mood altering agents vary widely.

The diving community is quick to dismiss cannabis. due to its reputation without fully understanding the pharmacology of these compounds under pressure.

Ginger and Its Constituents: Natural Aspirin and More

A new line of Terpenes

Ginger has been effectively used in Traditional Medicine. Research supports and substantiates its results. New findings are unveiling a wide range of clinical applications for phytochemicals found in plant-roots. More research can unveil many new benefits.

Specifically, ginger (Zingiber officinale) contains a mixture of Volatile Oil that consist mainly of monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes.

Gingerols

Gingerol is responsible for the pungent fresh aroma of ginger root.

Found in fresh ginger and activates spice receptors on the tongue.

Shogaols

The product of a dehydration reaction gingerol undergoes forming shogaols.

Zingerone 

Less pungent and has a spicy-sweet aroma.

The main sesquiterpene component of fragrant essential oil

Detectable amounts of bisabolene β-sesquiphellandrene, farnesene, β-phellandrene, cineol, and citral are also present in the terpene profile.

Cardiovascular

Serotonin is transported by platelets and released upon activation. This induces constriction of blood vessels and enhances platelet aggregation. 

Studies have demonstrated that gingerols inhibit COX-1 receptors, preventing serotonin release,subsequent platelet aggregation and clot formation. 

In addition,gingerol increases inotropic effect accompanied with vasodilation by acting on the beta receptors located on the cell walls in the heart and arteries. 

Though gingerol is a COX-1 inhibitor like aspirin, it does not cause gastric mucosal damage and bleeding. Ginger can prevent clot formation without risk gastric bleeding, acting like a natural aspirin. 

Pre-treatment with ginger followed by co-administration of warfarin did not affect warfarin pharmacokinetics. 

Digestion

Gingerol and shogaol class of compounds interact with several pathways directly responsible for nausea, vomiting and digestion. Ginger is a natural potent antiemetic (prevents nausea). These terpenes enhance gastric emptying and the associated effect for extended release formulations are still being studied.

Anti-inflammatory

Active Constituents of ginger have antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. 

Ginger extract directly suppresses chemokine (signaling proteins) production from synoviocytes, chondrocytes, and leukocytes.

Gingerol actively inhibits the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines on the Lipopolysaccharide outer membrane of gram negative bacteria stimulated macrophages.

These terpenes treat inflammation without interfering with the antigen presenting function of macrophages.

Anti-infection

Ginger directly suppresses chemokine and partially controls immune response. These terpenes may affect the minimal inhibitory concentration and exhibit synergy with antibiotics, since it was shown that treatment with gingerols increased bacterial Membrane Permeability and facilitated aminoglycoside entry allowing for a more effective antibiotic treatment. 

Anti-tumor 

Ginger terpenes exhibit anticancer activity against several types of cancers through cell rupture and apoptosis. Ginger is not a cure for cancer but understanding the mechanisms and pathways of function can bring researchers closer to treatment.

Terpene mediated Delivery

Gingerol is one of the many terpenes that can be used for more effective drug-delivery and bioavailability. Nonpolar terpenes such as Limonene provide better enhancement for lipophilic drugs than do polar terpenes. Conversely, terpenes containing polar groups such as menthol and 1,8-cineole provide better enhancement for hydrophilic drugs. 

Metabolism 

It is important to note that all the aforementioned effects noted are first-pass metabolism whereby the terpene concentrations are administered orally, pass the liver and get greatly altered prior to reaching the systemic circulation. Vaporization of terpenes is becoming increasingly popular globally.

Vaporization

A common delivery method is vaporization. This method allows accurate and direct dosing as regulated amounts of terpenes directly enter circulation prior to arriving at the liver, increasing bioavailability. There is not much literature regarding second-pass gingerol metabolism. Furthermore, how these particular terpenes interact with Cannabinoids need to be observed. 

Cannabis 

While some terpenes found in ginger are found in cannabis, gingerol is not found in cannabis. Gingerol class terpenes have synergistic effects in combination with cannabinoids. We do not know how these particular terpenes interact with cannabinoids as part of the Entourage Effect.

Chemical Properties

Formula: C17H26O4

Molar mass: 294.38 g/mol

Density: 1100 kg/m³

Boiling point: 353°C

Chemical Structure 

Gingerol

Cannabis Mechanisms for Weight-loss

Studies show that cannabis users seem to have lower BMI than control groups. There is more research to be done but there are several reasons for weight loss with cannabis use.

The Endocannabinoid System plays a vital role in homeostasis by signaling receptors found in the central nervous system and vital organs. The CB1 Receptor is a primary mediator of energy storage, conservation, uptake and general homeostasis. CB1 antagonists are effective not only in reducing body weight, but also in improving the associated Insulin Resistance Conditions

Some Cannabinoids are high-affinity CB1 receptor ligands and potent antagonists. It is important to remember that the cannabinoid affinity is directly affected by Terpenes. Terpenes, cannabinoids and other Cannabis Compounds alter the function of cannabinoid receptors which finetune metabolic functions.

The ratio of competing substrates, Omega-3 to Omega-6 fatty acid within the blood affect the endocannabinoid system and determines N-arachidonoylethanolamide (AEA/anandamide) and 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG) production. When there is too much omega-6 fatty acid, it gets converted to increased AEA and 2-AG, stimulating CB1 and promoting weight gain. 

Omega-3 fatty acids are common as dietary supplements due to their apparent ability to reduce obesity, inflammation by leading to reduced AEA and 2-AG levels and CB1 activity.

Generally, THC results in downregulation of CB1, leading to reduced sensitivity to AEA and 2-AG. It is apparent that long-lasting downregulation of CB1 following cannabis consumption reduces energy storage and increases metabolic rates, thus causing weight reduction of elevated dietary omega-6/omega-3 ratios. 

While adequate research is still required, some hypothesis that CBD is a contributor to weight-loss. CBD does not directly deactivate CB1 receptors, but may influence the production of antagonists to dampen its biological response. Altering affinity of cannabinoid receptors may help reduce appetite, make healthier food more appealing, and regulate metabolic rate.

Certain terpenes possess an anorectic quality. Limonene and Humulene are anti-inflammatory and are commonly used to promote weight loss.

Cannabis strain related weight-loss may occur from behavioral changes associated with cannabis consumption rather than cannabinoid stimulation. 

Pain relieving properties of cannabis allow for more physical activity. These properties are also thought to shorten recovery time between workouts allowing for a more strenuous workout regiment.

Cannabis stimulates the dopamine receptors in the brain responsible for mood. Cannabis users often substitute cannabinoids for food in the brain reward pathways. Individuals can fall into a habit of eating when feeling worried, anxious, nervous, or stressed. Lowering anxiety levels can reduce calorie intake and prevent overeating as a coping mechanism.

Decreased alcohol consumption leads to weight loss, not only because of calorie reduction but also from an increased metabolic rate and decreased fat degradation. 

Research has begun to fully understand the mechanisms associated with weight-loss caused by cannabis consumption. The initial results are promising, but there is more research to be done to fully utilize the clinical potential.

Possible Benefits of Cannabis in Insulin Dependent Diabetes

Recent studies have highlighted a number of potential health benefits of cannabis as a diabetes treatment and suggest that cannabis compounds can produce the following physiological effects:

Phytocannabinoid have been shown to reduce intraocular pressure considerably in people with glaucoma. Epidemiological data suggests that patients with diabetes are at increased risk of developing glaucoma/retinopathy, caused by the blood flow restriction to the eye. Active Cannabis Compounds can suppress arterial inflammation and treat cardiovascular diseases. Cannabinoids and Terpenes aid in vasodilation and improve circulation, while lowering blood pressure and helping reduce the risk of heart disease or other diabetes complications. Specifically, CBD is known to enhance the vasorelaxant responses to avoid cardiomyopathy which is common amongst diabetics. Small monoterpenes exhibit vasorelaxant effects as they increase the cannabinoids affinity to the receptor.

The Endocannabinoid System can prevent nerve inflammation neuropathic pain. Cannabinoids are potent anti-inflammatory agents and signal apoptosis. They stimulate cannabinoid receptors within the nervous system, triggering suppression of cytokine production and induction of T-regulatory cells. Use of topical creams to relieve neuropathic pain and tingling sensations.

Cannabis can help relieve muscle cramps pain. Cannabinoids also interact within the endocannabinoid system in the gastrointestinal tract. Direct activation of CB1 receptors by plant-derived/endogenous compounds reduce both gastric acid secretion and decrease the formation of gastric mucosal lesions.

Cannabinoids play a role in regulating metabolic processes. 

THC activates the CB1R receptor in the brain, which triggers an increased desire to eat. Pro-opiomelanocortin nerve cells, which normally produce feelings of fullness, become activated and promote hunger under the influence of THC. CB1 binding results in the release of  hunger-stimulating chemicals (insulin) rather than appetite-suppressing chemicals (cholecystokinin). THC binds to mitochondria inside of cells and acts to switch to feelings of hunger. increased insulin lowers glucose and stabilises blood sugar levels in diabetics. Specific cannabis strains can decrease blood glucose levels and increase insulin production in people with type 2 diabetes. THC and CBD have been shown to regulate metabolism and blood glucose indicating possible therapeutic glycemic control agents.

Further research and testing is mandatory to fully explain the mechanisms and produce viable diabetes treatment.

Cannabis Social Obligation: System Reform for a Greener Future

We don’t often write opinion pieces but we think it is important that this be said.

It is expected from an individual with a sound mind to act in a non destructive manner to their surroundings. 

Most laws consist of this concept. Do not Kill. Do not steel. Do not cheat. The harm done by these crimes is understandable and receives full support. 

When the traffic light came out the public was confused. There was not enough traffic on the streets to justify waiting at the red light. As traffic increased collisions began to occur and the need gained popularity.

As seat-belts were invented, there was debate regarding seat-belt obligation. This is when the basis of today’s laws becomes prominent. One side argued that the lack of protection causes no harm to a third party. The other side used macroeconomics to explain that though that particular individual was reckless toward himself and not causing additional harm to others, his surrounding suffers as the individual can not generate income. Socialized healthcare is spending additionally for recklessness. Simply the lack of productiveness is a crime by itself. 

This concept is harder for the public to accept. Easier to understand concepts have to be made to justify new laws. Most of the pre-1900 press references to cannabis relate either Medical Usage or Industrial Textile, in the early 1900s, you start to see major newspaper accounts of delirium or death. Later in the drug war, campaigns explaining the abuse caused by users and the damage done to society. The demonization of cannabis remains strong.

When the 2020 Covid-19 Epidemic first started people wore masks to protect themselves from the virus. Those who were not compliant did not. In an attempt to convince the stubborn leaders to approach the problem in a different manner, you must wear the mask to protect others. If you do not wear the mask you are selfish and are causing harm to others. Other reports such as the virus being airborne and contagion in pregnancy aim to propagate support but fail to pass large studies.

Many remain traumatized by the events that are occurring.

Studies show some combination of tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), cannabidiol (CBD) and many Other Parts of Cannabis create the desired therapeutic effect. 

We need more studies that look at whole plant cannabis because this is what people are using in addition to Cannabinoids. It is difficult to do good placebo-controlled trials with whole plant cannabis, but they’re still really needed.

In the meantime people should experiment and find a strain to aid their comfort. As in anything moderation is required. 

The world had two month of Quarantine to rethink its priorities. It seems like everyone is going forward regularly with some symbolic mask. It is time to make a Financial, Judicial and Environmental change based on social responsibility.

Social responsibility is an ethical framework and suggests that an individual has an obligation to act for the benefit of society at large.

It is time to legalize and deregulate cannabis and allow for Scalability in the market.

Commercial and Personal Cannabis Growing Guide

Light

Photons

Provides needed energy and used to produce sugars via photosynthesis 

Measured with photons/light intensity.

Classified by Light spectrum.

Plants use photons as an energy source needed to complete photosynthesis as they carry Energy proportional to their frequency.

Inverse square law states the intensity of light changes inversely to the square of the distance of the source

 I=1/d2

Mathematically, double the distance, energy will be ¼ intensity.

Cannabis light intensity 

Light intensity affects different processes within cannabis and can vary with condition. General growing intensities are as follows.

  • Seedlings and clones 200–400μmol/m²/s.
  • Vegetative phase 400–600μmol/m²/s, 
  • Flowering cannabis 600–1500μmol/m²/s

Light Spectrum

The entire range of electromagnetic radiation consists from various wavelengths which determine the color on the spectrum.

Generally plants use the photosynthetic active range (PAR) of spectrum.

Different chemicals react ideally to different light wavelengths.

  • Chlorophyll A (red,violet, blue)
  • Chlorophyll B (blue,orange)
  • Carotenoids (green,blue) help with eliminating free radical oxygen during photosynthesis to prevent cell degradation
  • Phytochrome (red/infrared) Signals plant to sleep or wake up  and causes florogen production. Has two states Pr (orange/yellow) and Pfr (red/infrared). Helps to keep cannabis in a vegitative state or to blossom.

Cannabis wavelength 

Cannabis prefers the following light colors.

400-460nm in vegitative growth

580-700nm in flowering

Photosynthesis

Photosynthetic cycle and the calvin cycle

6CO2 + 6H20 + (energy) → C6H12O6 + 6O2 Carbon dioxide + water + energy

Calvin cycle 

Does not need light only CO2

3 CO2 + 6 NADPH + 5 H2O + 9 ATP → glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate (G3P) + 2 H+ + 6 NADP+ + 9 ADP + 8 inorganic phosphate

Light Schedule

Cannabis requires 18-6 or continuous 24-hour light during vegitative growth period (little to no dark hours).

Cannabis requires a 12-12 light schedule during flowering.

it is important to keep the dark hours light-free.

Air

CO2 Oxygen osmotic potential

Internal pressure regulated by input and output of oxygen and water

CO2 used for photosynthesis and enters through the stomata.

O2 enters through roots and is a byproduct of photosynthesis.

Exists through the stomata. 

Temperature 

Vegetative Stage: 20-30°C range

Flowering Stage:  18-26°C 

Humidity

  • Clones 70%
  • Vegetative 40-60%
  • Flowering 40-50%
  • Final weeks of flowering 40-45%

Additional CO

The more light intensity the more CO2 cannabis plants need. Cannabis Can Use Up to 1500 PPM  COincreasing COconcentrations can increase yield. Only growers who benefit from added CO2 are those who desire quicker yields. 

Airflow

Always make sure to have air circulation around the plant.

Do not point the fan directly on your plants.

Water and Nutrients 

Water is used for photosynthesis, transpiration and mineral uptake

Water polarity and ph are vital for nutrient uptake.

Watering Cannabis

Watering less often and thoroughly is better than giving your cannabis a little water often.

Make sure to drench the entire medium completely.

Know that slightly underwatering your plants is always better than overwatering as it encourages root formation. 

Primary Minerals 

Cannabis essentially needs 13 minerals for growth

N,P,K,Ca,Mg,S,Fe,B,Zn,Cu, Mn, Mo, Cl

Macro-Nutrients 

Nitrogen, Phosphorus, Potassium (NPK)

Secondary and Nonessential Nutrients

Needed for plant actions and play i vital roll in cannabis’ life cycle.

Deficiency and Toxicity 

Mobile Deficiency shows on the older leaves first.

N,Mg Ni

Imobile Deficiency growth moves from the roots to final location start at the news growth. 

B, Ca, Mg, Fe, Cu, Fe, Zn

Nutrient Schedule

Vegetative Stage

N – P – K

3 – 1 – 2

Flowering Stage

N – P – K

1 – 1 – 2

Final Flowering Stage

N – P – K

0 – 1 – 2

Reduce Nitrogen two weeks after flipping 12/12 light schedule will assist in stopping the vertical growth (stretch) and result in a less leafy, smoother burning, and denser end product. 

Phytohormones

Primary hormones and their function phytochrome

Auxins responsible for cell direction and elongation

Cytokinin works with Auxins and is needed for cell division 

Gibberellins tigres seed to germinate

Ethylene in gaseous form make the responsible for maturation/calyx close up in cannabis

Abscisic protects plant from drought signals the stoma to close 

Florigen signals start of flowering

We can generally categorise the individual phytohormones as working to either promote, inhibit or otherwise affect growth in one way or another.

With correct genetics and epigenetic conditions, a typical grow does not need phytohormone intervention.

Mycorrhizal

Forms a symbiotic association between cannabis and a fungus. The plant makes organic molecules such as sugars by photosynthesis and supplies them to the fungus, and the fungus supplies to the plant water and mineral nutrients from the soil.

In addition to soil medium, cannabis can be grown in water. Lately new gel growing mediums have been developed that automates the growing process. In addition, automated growing tents help have tighter control while growing.

These are guidelines to help you grow your first cannabis harvest. Like any other science, botany consists of experimentation. 

Do not get discouraged, help shape future cannabis genetics. We love to hear your favorite growing techniques.

Ethnoecology of Cannabis

The cross-cultural study of how people perceive and manipulate their environments. 

Cannabis Classification 

Cannabis is classified in the plant family.

Likes to live in disturbed areas with some sunlight. 

Monecious plant that has male and female sex.

Females can produce hundreds of seeds when fertilized.

THC levels drop when fertilized, many growers use sinsemilla (without seeds) techniques that prevent fertilization.

Most molecular phylogeneticists consider Cannabis Sativa as the only species in the genus with many varieties & subspecies such as cannabis sativa, indica and ruderalis. 

Any given variety has various Cannabinoids Composition in the trichomes.

Cannabis Administration

  • Inhaled 
  • Swallowed and absorbed in the gastrointestinal tract
  • Absorbed through mucosal membranes
  • Absorbed through skin

Ethnobotanical Use of Cannabis 

There are numerous Active Compounds in cannabis 

Variety of different uses ranging from glaucoma to topical applications 

Botanical Medicine

Compound Delivery Methods

Transdermal Absorption 

Fighting Viral and Bacterial Infections

Parkinson’s Disorder

Ocular Pathology

Toothpaste

Biodegradable Plastics

Cannabis Anatomy 

Stem 

Cannabis pith (inner layer) is surrounded by a woody core called the hurd.

The hurd is a source for tough hemp fiber.

Node 

Growth points along the stem.

Cola

A cola refers to tightly clustered buds. Smaller colas occur along the budding sites, the main cola (apical bud) forms at the very top of the plant.

Stigma and pistil

The pistil contains the reproductive parts of the flower. Stigmas serve to collect pollen from males. They play an important role in reproduction.

Bract and calyx

A bract encapsulates the carpel (female’s reproductive parts). It is covered in resin glands which produce high concentrations of cannabinoids in cannabis. Enclosed by these bracts and imperceptible to the eye, the calyx refers to a translucent layer over the ovule at a flower’s base.

Trichome

Glands on the leaves, stems, and calyxes. Trichomes were originally developed to protect the plant against predators and the elements. These clear aromatic oils contain Terpenes and Cannabinoids like THC and CBD. 

Cannabis Origins 

Native Geography

Domesticated Eurasia 10000 years ago for various uses 

One of the oldest domesticated plant 

Hemp dyed with indigo dye was used for trading while others found other uses for the Cannabis plant.

Non-human dispersal methods

  • Terrestrial animals
  • Birds
  • Streams
  • Insects 

Selective Breeding 

Cannabis traits

Well adapted to live in Anthrome (biomes)

Used for Food, fiber, medicine, psychotropic effects

Human impact

Ecological traits- growing close to humans knowns as ethnoecology

Horticultural- encouraging desirable traits by direct hybridization 

There is a growing trend to grow CBD rich flowers in areas THC is still restricted.

Research is unveiling CBD’s potential and will over time have Genetic Outcomes.

We can not predict the role cannabis will serve in the future and how our intervention will impact future strains’ genetics, but there is still much research to be done to maximize cannabis’s potential.

Cannabis Marketing Explained

The cannabis industry has been expanding, new products, dispensaries, grow supplies and medical research are all gaining interest.

The legal framework is shifting almost daily does not stop investors, researchers, and entrepreneurs from entering the field. Exposure remains a hurdle on the way to Scalability

Advertising platforms are having a hard time keeping up with varying regulations. 

Paid advertising is either tricky or straight up impossible for many cannabis-related products due to the Terms of Service of many advertising platforms.

Top ranked positions now hold valuable growth opportunities as they allow for dedicated user following and monetization.

While the techniques often change, there are some concepts to keep in mind.

Keywords 

Simply think like your users, what would you type to find your content, what will your friends write if they were interested. Now envision your perfect user’s search intent.

Keyword research is not difficult. Just go for the keywords with low SEO difficulty and high search volume. 

User Experience

Load time

Everything is happening quickly, users demand fast load time. 

Interface 

How easy is it to navigate your site?

Does it get stuck?

Are there distracting popups?

Did you guide your user to the correct page?

Do forms require a specific input method?

Does the user gain benefit?

User behavior 

How long were visitors on site?

How often do they return to the site?

How many pages did they visit?

Did they perform a user action?

Added Value 

Knowledge convenience, affordability, quality and comfort are just some benefits that may be provided. Time is important. 

Domain Authority 

Backlinks

The more people mention you the more exposure there is.

Backlink Source : Are they themselves credible or in the same industry?

Backlink Activity: How active and relevant is the link?

A mark of quality is returning visitors, that indicates satisfaction. 

Domain History

The more active a platform the more potential for growth.

Domain age, volatility of ownership and prestigious affiliations to assess apparent prestige.

A business with a long active history is more authoritative.

These advertising principles apply to all online advertising methods. Automated Paid (SEM), Organic Search Optimization (SEO), Media Buying, and Social networks. Web presence is vitally important.

Before building an advertising strategy, check the terms of service of your platform and web hosting.

Every great startup needs people who believe in it.