All posts by Terpene TLV

420 – The Unofficial Holiday

April 20th is an unofficial American National Holiday. Written in the standard local date format “mm-dd-yyyy” the holiday is celebrated on 4-20 yearly. 420 is increasingly celebrated internationally by cannabis activists. While the origins of the holiday are unclear, different theories have become popular. 

One common belief is that 420 was the California police or penal code for cannabis use, but there’s no evidence to support those claims.

Another theory is that Bob Dylan’s legendary “Everybody must get stoned” from his hit “Rainy Day Women No. 12 & 35” (12 multiplied by 35 does equal 420).

A lesser-known theory of origin comes from a short story named “In the Walls of Eryx” by H.P. Lovecraft and Kenneth Sterling. The story describes “curious mirage-plants” that appeared to get the narrator high at 4:20 according to his watch. This 1939 story is perhaps the earliest written connection between cannabis and 420.

Currently, the general consensus is the Grateful Dead connection. Five students at San Rafael High School, located in Marin County California, would meet for a smoke session/searching for a lost cannabis plant at 4:20 p.m. They were nicknamed the Waldos and inspired the Grateful Dead to spread the lingo worldwide.

To put it bluntly, those are just rumors. In reality the true origin of the holiday is insignificant in comparison to its evolution. 

420 has been referenced in movies, on national TV, and cartoons. Some examples include Pulp Fiction, Price Is Right and Roko’s Modern Life.

While  many have set dates in their calendars, regulations have not kept up. Until recently police enforcement was elevated on April 20th to apprehend non-threatening cannabis consumers.

420 events also at times served as demonstrations for legal rights.

Today, many previously discriminated individuals can live productive lives while enjoying the benefits of cannabis. 

Apart from cannabis-oriented festivities, this holiday represents inclusiveness, self acceptance, achievements and unity. 

The term 420 friendly generally indicated a person or business open to allowing cannabis consumption in peace and without consequences.

As support for legalization grows, 420 is becoming more mainstream and commercialized. 

Let s know how you celebrate this unofficial holiday

Contact

Bringing Hemp-Based Material to the 21st Century

Old world industrious farmers maximized every part of the plant. Cannabis fabric ranged in quality from basic, homemade material to high-end status symbols.

Hemp fabric dates back to 800 BC and provided textile for the masses. Hemp rope had many uses including bandages, sandals, clothing, bed sheets and horse bridlings. 

Hemp fabric did it all. 

While America is no longer dependent on hemp and has gradually decreased production, analysts predict a rapid return of demand. 

Compared to cotton, Hemp requires minimal amounts of water and less time and space to produce equal quantities of fabric. This self-sustaining crop is a more environmentally-friendly option for clothing, paper and

Biodegradable Plastic.

Industrial technology has improved vastly over decades. Currently this forgotten knowledge is being recovered and improved.

Practical uses for new organic materials are being deployed to achieve eco-friendliness and cost-efficiency.

Sustainable production is being incorporated for numerous modern applications.

Actively pursuing commercial hemp programs and education is essential to reduce plastic use.

It is important to understand the basics of hemp fabric production.

  1. Cultivation: Densely planted seeds produce taller, slender stems that contain more fine fibers.
  2. Harvesting: Sinsemilla (without seeds) technique is used to avoid coarse fibers during seed formation.
  3. Retting: breaks down the pectin using naturally occurring bacteria, fungi, or chemicals to release hemp fibers. Common techniques include:
    1. Water Retting: Involves soaking the stems in warm water for around 10 days..
    2. Dew Retting: Entails piling biomass on the ground for three to six weeks, occasionally turning the plants to allow for even retting.
  4. Breaking: Breaks the stems by passing them through a breaker or fluted rolls.
  5. Scutching: Beat the broken stems, separating the desired fibers from hemp’s woody core.
  6. Hackling: Comb/filter the fibers to remove any remaining woody particles and further align the fibers into a continuous sliver.
  7. Roving: Twist and draw to improve strength prior to being rolled onto spinning bobbins.
  8. Spinning: Dry spinning produces coarser yarns while wet spinning leads to finer yarns. The process can be done manually or mechanically.
  9. The final stage is winding, which in spinning terms means packaging. 

New innovations processes and technologies have made hemp versatile, affordable and profitable.

To learn more, Follow Terpene TLV

Terpene Functional Groups and Applications

The large array of compounds can be grouped into a few classes of molecules. To learn more about these key groups of molecules and how most common types of extraction interact with them, check out the Latest Resources.

Terpenes are aromatic Phytochemicals, though many people commonly associate them with cannabis due to the abundance/high concentrations of them. These aromatic compounds create the scent and characteristics of many plants.They can have different degrees of unsaturation and a variety of functional groups.

Terpene Alcohols

Many important terpenoids contain hydroxyl groups forming terpene alcohols.

Terpineol Is found in three isomeric forms of C10H17OH, occurring naturally in the essential oils of certain plants and used as solvents in perfumes, soaps and medicine. This Monoterpene alcohol possesses antioxidant, anticancer, anticonvulsant, antiulcer, antihypertensive, anti-nociceptive qualities. It is also used to enhance Skin Penetration. There are many terpene alcohols suited for various applications, but terpineol is amongst the most common for industrial use.

Flavonoids/Phenols

Phenolics are a huge and diverse group of aromatic ring containing compounds, often containing hydroxyl groups. Phenol itself is the simplest member of the class, although it is not found in plants.

More complex phenyl propanoids include flavonoids. The pigments in red, blue or purple flowers are usually flavonoids called anthocyanins, made up of anthocyanidin with one or more sugar molecules attached. In addition anthocyanins have unique bioactivity and many health benefits.

Yellow and white color is attributed to other flavonoids.

Flavonols are the most prevalent plant flavonoids while flavones are present in relatively small quantities in select crop. In addition, flavonols, flavones, flavanones and Isoflavones have unique chemical structures with different chareterisitics. 

Aldehydes/Ketone

A major portion of certain volatile oils mainly comprise of aromatic terpene aldehydes. This functional group alters terpenoids interaction and solubility. 

Aldehydes and ketones are characterized by the presence of a carbonyl group (C=O). Their reactivity can generally be understood by recognizing that the carbonyl carbon contains a partial positive charge (δ+) and the carbonyl oxygen contains a partial negative charge (δ−).

Alkenes 

Generally, any of the series of unsaturated hydrocarbons containing a double bond, including ethylene and propylene.

Ethene is produced naturally by all higher plants from the amino acid methionine.

Alkynes 

The simplest acyclic alkynes with only one triple bond and no other functional groups.

One of the more interesting classes of new anti-cancer drugs is a group of naturally occurring enediynes which cleave DNA. Each has a ring tucked into a complex molecule which includes aromatic rings and sugars. These molecules are being produced synthetically by pharmacological companies with aim of improving medicine. 

Organic chemistry combined with Ethnobotanics has yielded healthcare advancements.

Studying cannabis’s unique compounds by application of the Entourage Effect can yield further breakthroughs. It is crucial to nurture infrastructure for research. It is paramount to allow researchers access to handle cannabis. Funding should not be restricted due to stigmation of cannabis. 

As more educational programs develop, growth incubators connect investors with researches aiming to succeed in industry. A warning to stakeholders, it is irresponsible to overlook Cannabis’s potential.

The linkage between basic science, knowledge and commercial benefits is undisputed. 

For further information please Contact Us.

Test Your Cannabis at Home

The cannabis market varies dramatically from location to location. Some markets are over regulated while others operate in the shadows.

No matter the source of your cannabis, several analysis methods can be conducted at home to ensure an enjoyable smoking experience.

Primary Analysis 

Scent Inspection 

The first inspection that should be performed is a scent inspection. 

The overall first impression that forms the characteristic smell of the strain. It is important to listen to your body. 

Quality cannabis has earthy, herbal, woody scents with occasional notes of lemon or other fruits. 

Avoid buds that smell like hay or have no discernible smell. If it doesn’t have that characteristic dankness, you probably don’t want it. 

Pungency is directly linked to potency and Terpene Content. Make sure your cannabis smells appealing.

Visual Inspection 

Visually inspecting can reflect on growing conditions, processing and genetics.

Quality cannabis is primarily green in color, with a wide range of accent colors and undertones. Avoid buds that have inconsistent color with tan, yellow, red, or white spots. Inconsistent color is an indication of mold or pests.

Quality cannabis is trimmed by hand to preserve trichomes and buds. Generally cannabis appearance should be either tight and dense or fluffier with more pistils.

Avoid buds that haven’t been trimmed well or visibly mangled by a trim machine, this visual cue indicates improper Curing Procedures that may cause pathogens.

Quality cannabis is only produced by the female plant. 

Avoid buds with male characteristics indicating the plant was cultivated under stress, reducing the quality and changing Chemical Composition of buds.

Trichome density is relatively easy to distinguish with the naked eye. Quality buds will be covered in trichomes that sparkle like crystals in light. 

Trichome color indicates ripeness. Using a magnifying glass, inspect the trichome head to determine ripeness.  Differentiate prematurely harvested and over-ripened buds. 

Ideally, the trichome heads should be milky white, possibly with a hint of amber. If the trichome heads are clear, the plant was harvested prematurely, and if all the heads are amber, the plant was harvested after peak ripeness.

Taste Inspection

Just like anything we consume the flavor should be appealing. Your body is evolved to know what it desires and what can cause it harm. 

Quality Cannabis should have an enjoyable smooth flavor. Foul-tasting buds can be a sign of mold or mildew.

Avoid buds If you taste chemicals or metallics, there may be pesticides or other contaminants present. If you experience discomfort or any sort of unpleasurable flavor, discontinue use right away.

Additional Analysis 

Though not applicable for everyone, portable tests allow early detection and quality control of cannabis.

Potency Inspection 

Home testing kits allow you to use a small amount of cannabis to detect cannabinoid levels.Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC). Consists of easy sample preparation coupled with inexpensive, rapid and sensitive selection of both the stationary and mobile phases.

This approach does not achieve as clean a separation as Other Methods when it comes to polar compounds.

Until now, lab testing was the only way to assure potency and quality. Recently, reliable home testing kits are available to consumers and small scale growers.

Pathogens Inspection

Technological advances have made it possible to adopt lab tests into portable field detectors. 

Pathogens can be found by gene amplification and detection by the use of automated PCR designed to detect a variety of microorganisms found in cannabis.

Cannabis Inspection

Before consumption Smell the cannabis, visually inspect, and make sure the taste is apitable, do not consume any if you find evidence of mold. Additionally you may want to conduct further tests. 

When smoking you should enjoy a fruity, spicy, pungent, natural flavor, if you taste any chemical-like substance do not risk contamination. 

Additional Tip

When trying a new strain or batch of cannabis, always start with low doses and gradually increase according to preference. 

Cannabis 2.0

What is cannabis 2.0

Cannabis 2.0 refers to production and sale of edible cannabis, cannabis extracts and cannabis topicals including infused beverages, pastries, gummies and various other products.

Cannabis Edibles 

Orally ingested doses are processed by the digestive system and liver prior to entering the bloodstream. Ingested cannabinoids are absorbed slowly, have delayed effects and are metabolized slower compared to inhaling them. Most edibles contain a significant amount of THC, however, it is best to stick to natural. 

Product Transition 

Cannabis 2.0 enables to interest those who might not otherwise consume cannabis products. It allows companies to produce a consistent scalable product. 

As the industry grows, new supplementary industries develop.

The cannabis High-Tech Industry is developing around providing supporting services to Cannabis 2.0 producers.

These technological innovations require knowledge, experience, facilities and investment. Without the ability to sell higher-margin products, it would be increasingly difficult to develop new products.

Once production is optimized products can be shipped to consumers at relatively low costs.

Many new companies emerge supplying a wide range of products for recreational use.

The tax revenue generated by the industry can be utilized for rehabilitation from alcohol and painkillers.

Technology 

Traditionally, cannabinoids are decarboxylated and enter directly to the bloodstream via the alveoli during the smoking process. In order to produce the natural cannabis feeling, it is important to Profile the Constituents of cannabis smoke and engineer a formulation that would emulate those constituents after liver metabolism. Significant research is being performed to understand what the average consumer likes and why. 

The ability to efficiently isolate specific compounds is a vital first step in producing New Generation Products. There are various sources of phytochemicals that can be incorporated into Cannabis 2.0 products, including the most commonly known Terpenes.

Biotechnological practices make it possible to analyze, sequence and modify plants for optimum production. Research in the field is producing products like Home-Grown Cannabis test Kits and phylogenetic predictive software.  

Infusion Products Developed and tested allow restaurants, bakeries and coffee shops on local scale to serve fresh effect based sustenance to their customers. 

Profitability

Currently cannabis businesses have zero or no margin. Regulations make it difficult to expand and receive access to capital.

There is light at the end of the prohibition tunnel; customers are able to fulfil demand through legal channels including Digital Commerce.

New emerging products provide access to new and returning customers. 

Market 

Any product mass produced today has strict guidelines of production. It is important to set realistic Cannabis Regulations that balance safety needs with an open competitive market. Overregulation can create monopolies and cartels that hurt the consumer. 

Politics

While some argue that cannabis like coffee, alcohol and tobacco is damaging, it is part citizens’ autonomy and does not harm others or stomp productivity. International demand for homogenization and normalization of the cannabis industry is rising and many politicians plan on reflecting this view in their campaigns.   
Cannabis 2.0 is here to stay and opens up many opportunities and collaborations in retail/product development. If you are in the field or are interested in joining the cannabis market make sure to Reach Out.

Rescheduling of Cannabis

The use of cannabis for recreational purposes is prohibited in most countries. There is intent of companies to satisfy demand, but the road forward is unclear. It is time to act objectively and determine the Future of Cannabis.

This is a direct quote from the FDA

“There is a significant interest in the development of therapies and other consumer products derived from cannabis and its components, including cannabidiol (CBD). FDA recognizes the potential opportunities that cannabis or cannabis-derived compounds may offer and acknowledges the significant interest in these possibilities. However, FDA is aware that some companies are marketing products containing cannabis and cannabis-derived compounds in ways that violate the Federal Food, Drug and Cosmetic Act (FD&C Act) and that may put the health and safety of consumers at risk. The agency is committed to protecting the public health while also taking steps to improve the efficiency of regulatory pathways for the lawful marketing of appropriate cannabis and cannabis-derived products.”

There is much to be done towards Legalization so cannabis companies avoid loopholes and produce Cannabis Flowers and Associated Products.

Such attempts to penetrate the market early stems from market-share ambitions combined with consumer egress. 

It is important to note that cannabis consists of many Beneficial Compounds with varying effects on biological systems.

Currently, cannabis is the only Schedule 1 drug that the DEA prohibits from being produced by private laboratories for Scientific Research. The strict regulations make it difficult to conduct studies.

While most agree that cannabis should be legalized to allow for consumer autonomy, some seek to game the system instead of allowing a free market.

New Regulation and requirements should be objectively reviewed. Unfair transport needs, loan requirements or information gathering should be discouraged.

Discrimination against consumers and producers should not affect prospects. Monopolies on this rediscovered market should be discouraged. 

Historically Cannabis was regulated under The USDA as an agricultural crop able to produce Plastics, Fibers and Textile. Cannabis is a natural and useful crop.

As a society we have made great leaps in technology and lifestyle. We have proved that when changes need to be made they are. There are no objective reasons cannabis should not be legalized and deregulated.  

It is unclear what is hindering international cannabis rescheduling and legalization.

It is time to end this costly game of cat and mouse. Let the cannabis market be part of future development. 

Homegrown Cannabis Safety

Safety

Cannabis safety is often cited as the primary reason why people avoid growing their own cannabis, but that’s frequently an illusion. Cannabis manufacturing companies claim GMP and lab analysis reduce contamination, but no empirical data is shown as to the efficiency of these practices.

Food-borne illnesses are almost as likely to be caused by comercial as by homegrown recreational or medical cannabis.

When growing cannabis Safety must be considered with every step of the process, from pre-planting to ingestion.

Surveys have shown that home gardeners don’t understand that soil, compost, manure, and water are potential sources of disease-causing bacteria that can contaminate crops. Instead, growers are most concerned about chemical contamination. 

Simple practices can be used to reduce pathogens and improve safety in the garden.

Consider: soil amendments, irrigation, wildlife restriction, cross contamination and storage.

Gardening Products 

Some chemicals that can damage both you and your plants. For example, nitric or phosphoric acid, lower the pH of water and a skin irritant. Using protective gear can minimize the chances of injury.

Always use approved fertilizers and pesticides; read the instructions prior to use.

Irrigation 

Constantly damp environment can cause root rot. Molds may grow and can damage the crop or grower’s health.

The best way to reduce the risk of water-related problems is to control the environment humidity, avoid overwatering and ensure runoff.

Habitat 

Unwanted wildlife can shed hairs and introduce the crop to unwanted pathogens. It is important to deter animals away from the crop to avoid contamination.

Storage

After the Curing Process keeping your cannabis in a cool, dark place under 60% RH.

Growing cannabis has the same safety concerns growing any other crop, additionally, the need to conceal the grow. 

Indoor

While indoor growing provides controlled conditions, it also has more risks when it comes to safety. Fires are a significant concern, improper wiring of the lights and fans can lead to a short circuit. Confined spaces make it difficult to handle fertilizers and pesticides. Mold buildup is more prominent. Simply legalizing homegrown cannabis makes it much safer for consumption. 

Legalization

Some cannabis companies fear full Legalization and Deregulation of cannabis as they are afraid of losing market-share, but in reality consumers are no more likely to grow cannabis as they are a tomato. 

Inspect 

Before consumption Smell the cannabis, if it’s appealing it passes the first stage. Visually check the cannabis product, do not consume any if you find evidence of mold. When smoking you should enjoy a fruity, spicy, pungent, natural flavor, if you taste any chemical-like substance do not risk contamination. Growing Cannabis at home allows the consumer to take charge of the production and ensure a steady supply.

Eucalyptol Properties

Cineol

This Monoterpene is a cyclic ether with a fresh, minty scent and a spicy yet cooling taste.

Uses 

Eucalyptol’s pleasant, spicy aroma and taste, is used in a variety of Products including; flavorings, fragrances, and cosmetics. Eucalyptus oil has natural antimicrobial and antiseptic properties used in household cleaning, natural pesticides and Mouthwash.

Source 

Eucalyptol is the dominant essential oil in eucalyptus trees. It is also commonly found in tea trees, basil, mugwort, rosemary, bay leaves, cannabis and Other Sources.

Metabolism 

Cineole, is used to increase blood circulation and relieve pain. It is fast acting, and able to cross the blood brain barrier faster than other cannabis terpenes. 

This positively charged terpene is able to cross the blood-brain barrier that separates the blood circulation from the cerebrospinal fluid. Its unique structure make it a potential drug delivery vehicle.

Antibacterial 

The antibacterial potential of cineole has been shown as an effective antibacterial agent; active against microorganisms in both planktonic and biofilm modes of growth. The terpene can be used as a natural remedy for infection associated with a wide range of microorganisms.

Anti-Fungal 

Cineole rich oil displays antifungals properties. Acting on a wide variety of common fungi. Further research has to be done to determine whether the activity is due to cineole or other terpene in the formulation.  

Anti-Inflammatory 

Cineole anti-inflammatory action has been used to treat various types of inflammation throughout the body including rhinosinusitis, pancreatitis, bowel disease, and Crohn’s disease. These diseases are characterized by inflammation of the digestive tract and ulcerative colitis. Eucalyptol has the potential to treat local and systemic inflammation.

Antioxidant 

Eucalyptol has demonstrated antioxidant properties and reduces the damage associated with cell oxidation and could potentially reduce aging by protecting against free radical damage.

Cancer

Recent studies demonstrated Induced cineole apoptosis, in two different types of leukemia. The studies demonstrate that eucalyptol has helped fight the growth of a type of cancer in humans. Researchers determined that treatment with eucalyptol is an effective strategy for treating colorectal cancer. Eucalyptol was not only anti-proliferative but also anti-cholesterol. Their results suggest that these effects work in unison to fight cancer. Linalool has also been shown to display these synergistic effects with cineole.

Alzheimer’s 

Alzheimer’s disease destroys memory through neuroinflammation. Studies have shown the anti-inflammatory effects of eucalyptol are strong enough to be a potential Alzheimer’s disease treatment.

Asthma

Inflammation induced asthma is common. Eucalyptol is known to be a very powerful treatment for asthma. Eucalyptol is a potential treatment for asthma and other lung inflammations. Researchers suggest multiple mechanisms as the source of eucalyptol’s anti-inflammatory properties and recommend cineole as a treatment for asthma. Therapy using cineole can lead to a noticeable improvement in lung function and health.

Tuberculosis

The effects of all the terpenes in Eucalyptus citriodora essential oil, and not just eucalyptol is considered to be weakly effective in alleviating the effects of tuberculosis. While this is not a cure, it may suggest that eucalyptus essential oil could be combined with other treatments for tuberculosis.

Insecticide

In addition to helping a wide range of health concerns, Eucalyptol has long been used as an insect repellent. eucalyptol is used to prevent potential health problems associated with pests.

Safety

While considered safe at natural concentrations, high concentration essential oil can be hazardous. 

Recommend inhalation and topical under 8.00% solution by volume.

May cause skin irritation.

The acute toxic potency of 1,8-cineole was relatively low (LD50 value = 3849 mg/kg).

It is recommended that all Safety Precautions be followed.

Chemical Properties 

Formula: C10H18O

Molar mass: 154.249 g/mol

Density: 922 kg/m³

Boiling point: 172 °C

Chemical Structure

Cineole Chemical Structure
Cineole Chemical Structure

Genetically Modified Cannabis

GMOs, or genetically modified organisms are a topic of contention and controversy in modern agriculture. For cannabis, the technology, ethics, and implications of Genetic Modification can have an impact on future production. Cannabis products show remarkable growth and acceptance into the mainstream. It is important to understand the impacts that GM crops may have on both the environment and on human health.

WHAT IS GMO?

Both traditional plant breeders and genetic engineers work with the aim of introducing desirable traits. Agriculturally, this typically means resistance to herbicides, pesticides and unsuitable conditions improving quality of crop. These are desirable traits that make harvests more robust and easier to grow.

While Traditional Breeding is done via fertilization, GMO are done using Biotechnological Techniques that physically move genes from one organism to another. GMO is not limited to naturally occurring traits within the species’ gene pool.

Traditional process allows for the unregulated exchange of genes; today’s labs are ready to more precisely manipulate strain genetics. The move towards precision and exacting control of genetic modification can allow companies to scale while producing consistent products.

The organism which receives a gene and the biological lab process of these modifications can be described as transgenic. Numurus transgenic techniques that have been developed over the years as modern biotechnology and scientific understanding of gene expression and gene mechanics.

It is important to know that some argue that the risks far outweigh the benefits in this equation.

Why Use GMO? 

Genetic engineering has advantages. The technique allows for traits to be introduced into a gene pool without complications and with complete technical control in sterile laboratory conditions. There are scientific capabilities to incorporate genes across unrelated species since all life share the same genetic building blocks and can be manipulated similarly at that subcellular level.

Are there Genetic Modifications for Cannabis?

Genetically modified organisms are hugely applicable across a number of disciplines with the same general targets: increasing crop yield, decreasing the cost of production, increasing pest resistance, decreasing maturation time, and increasing environmental tolerance to environmental stressors. Genetically modified cannabis can include new strains. Some research has been done on cannabinoid producing algae. 

Are Genetically Modified Organisms Safe?

Foreign genetic alterations can result in unintended consequences.

Altered organisms can present significant changes in its metabolism, growth rate, and response to environmental factors. Not only can genetic alteration affect the genetically modified organism itself, but also has far-reaching implications upon the habitat, from ingestion to surroundings . The risks associated with genetic manipulations are generally categorized in two main branches: human health and environment.

How do Genetic modifications affect Humans?

There are specific systems in place for evaluation of GM organisms and their effects. The tests focus on assessing toxicity, allergenicity and stability of the inserted gene, additionally, the nutritional effects of the gene modification upon the crop is evaluated. While not directly toxic to human health, the immediate and long-term consequences are of concern. Public exposure to new allergens found in the GM crop via potential transfer of antibiotic-resistance during digestion, inhalation or absorption should be considered amongst associated potential risks to human health.

What are the Effects on the Environment?

Releasing genetically modified organisms can directly affect Wild Populations by mixing with the wild types through a process known as outcrossing. Such outcrossing can affect the surrounding environment and species can potentially threaten the viability of the wild cohort and influence other natural populations within the ecosystem. 

superweeds and superbugs are evolved in response to the increase in herbicide-resistant crops. They are much more difficult to manage, and usually result in increased chemical pesticide.

Are GMOs Currently Used?

At present, the number of genetically modified organisms under development and in production is steadily rising. This is a result of the scientific community’s improved understanding of Gene Expression Systems and manipulations; including improved laboratory techniques, tools for sequencing whole genomes and processes for cloning or transferring genes.

There is no doubt that this list of successful scientific and technical progress is crucial to improving global health, science, medicine, and research overall, but as such technologies and techniques continue to become more sophisticated and more varied, the associated applications and effects must be considered.

Should Genetic Modification be used?

Once GMOs are released into the environment, their effects cannot be recalled. While we weigh the potential benefits of decreased agricultural prices and increased nutritional gains, it is paramount to compare these to the potential risks involved and determine which route the industry should pursue. Fellow cannabis cultivators, scientists and advocates, what is your determination?

Introduction to Terpene Science

1.1 What are Terpenes?

Terpenoids are biomolecules made up of multiple isoprenes (Hydrocarbons). These terpenoids can be linear, cyclical, or both. When a terpenoid is modified with a functional group it is referred to as a terpene. Terpenes are categorized by size. C5H8 Monoterpene (C5H8)2 Sesquiterpene (C5H8)3 Diterpene (C5H8)4 Sesterterpene (C5H8)5 Teterpenes, and so on.

Each terpene behaves differently based on the category and functional group. Many Have pharmacological and biological activities. These terpenes work on the endocannabinoid system In a process called the Entourage Effect.

1.2 Terpenes in Nature

Plants produce various types of metabolites. Terpenoids are a product of the chloroplast’s secondary metabolism. Terpenes and cannabinoids are produced within the trichome cells through biosynthesis. Terpenes act like the plant’s “hormones”. Plants also use these terpenes to protect them against fungus and bacteria. Terpenes also attract pollinating insects. 

1.3 Terpene Sources 

Plant Derived Terpenes go through a distillation process. There’s no perfect way to Extract Terpenes from organic sources. As with most things, it’s a cost-benefit analysis – how do you eliminate impurities like fats, chlorophyll, and other plant metabolites without damaging the precious compounds you’re trying to preserve? There’s also the issue of time – the longer the process takes, the less efficient it is for commercial use and the more chances there are for impurities to work their way into the finished product. There are a whole host of methods and technologies that are used in pursuit of that goal. In order to isolate one needs to find a suitable source and method.

1.4 The Scientific Method

Science is a process of knowing about the natural universe through observation and experiment. Scientists go through a rigorous process to determine new knowledge about our surroundings; this process is generally referred to as the scientific method. Science is broken down into various fields, of which Terpene Science is one. This science consists of multiple disciplines including Chemistry, Biology and Pharmacology and is both qualitative and quantitative.

1.5 Terpene Research

Terpenes can form long or branched chains or rings and have other attached atoms. There is essentially an unlimited number of possible organic molecules.

Functional Groups consist of other atoms, such as oxygen or nitrogen, and are included in an organic molecule. Functional groups are represented by R and R’  addition to hydrocarbon group for a complete molecular structure. The addition can change the physical and chemical properties dramatically.

To understand, control or modify chemical reactions of living organisms, we must understand life on the molecular level. While living things are extremely complicated the chemical reactions and Molecules are relatively simple.

1.6 Terpenes in Cannabis

THC and CBD are Cannabinoids, which bind to receptors in the human body, specifically the CB1 and CB2 receptors. These receptors control the Endocannabinoid System which is responsible for regulating mood, immune function and hormone secretion. Different terpenes change cannabonoids’s affinity to the cannabinoid receptors. It makes them bind at different levels and control their overall psychoactive effects. Some terpenes might promote relaxation and stress-relief, while others potentially promote focus and awareness. 

1.7 Terpene Profiling

New Quantitative Analytical Techniques are constantly developed directed towards cannabis research. Due to these techniques we are able to further biological understanding of cannabis. Mastering the main principles behind these techniques is crucial.

1.8 Biochemistry

There are four major classes of biochemical compounds – Carbohydrates, lipids, proteins and nucleic acids. We can not predict the role cannabis will serve in the future and how our intervention will impact future strains’ genetics, but there is still much research to be done.

1.9 Product Development

Cannabis contains over 500 distinct Compounds, which include cannabinoids, flavonoids, nitrogenous compounds, amino acids, hydrocarbons, enzymes, terpenes, and more. These compounds altogether contribute to the unique pharmacological and sensual function. It is important to keep products consistently providing desired effects to maximize Cannabis’s Potential.