Ginger and Its Constituents: Natural Aspirin and More

A new line of Terpenes

Ginger has been effectively used in Traditional Medicine. Research supports and substantiates its results. New findings are unveiling a wide range of clinical applications for phytochemicals found in plant-roots. More research can unveil many new benefits.

Specifically, ginger (Zingiber officinale) contains a mixture of Volatile Oil that consist mainly of monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes.

Gingerols

Gingerol is responsible for the pungent fresh aroma of ginger root.

Found in fresh ginger and activates spice receptors on the tongue.

Shogaols

The product of a dehydration reaction gingerol undergoes forming shogaols.

Zingerone 

Less pungent and has a spicy-sweet aroma.

The main sesquiterpene component of fragrant essential oil

Detectable amounts of bisabolene β-sesquiphellandrene, farnesene, β-phellandrene, cineol, and citral are also present in the terpene profile.

Cardiovascular

Serotonin is transported by platelets and released upon activation. This induces constriction of blood vessels and enhances platelet aggregation. 

Studies have demonstrated that gingerols inhibit COX-1 receptors, preventing serotonin release,subsequent platelet aggregation and clot formation. 

In addition,gingerol increases inotropic effect accompanied with vasodilation by acting on the beta receptors located on the cell walls in the heart and arteries. 

Though gingerol is a COX-1 inhibitor like aspirin, it does not cause gastric mucosal damage and bleeding. Ginger can prevent clot formation without risk gastric bleeding, acting like a natural aspirin. 

Pre-treatment with ginger followed by co-administration of warfarin did not affect warfarin pharmacokinetics. 

Digestion

Gingerol and shogaol class of compounds interact with several pathways directly responsible for nausea, vomiting and digestion. Ginger is a natural potent antiemetic (prevents nausea). These terpenes enhance gastric emptying and the associated effect for extended release formulations are still being studied.

Anti-inflammatory

Active Constituents of ginger have antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. 

Ginger extract directly suppresses chemokine (signaling proteins) production from synoviocytes, chondrocytes, and leukocytes.

Gingerol actively inhibits the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines on the Lipopolysaccharide outer membrane of gram negative bacteria stimulated macrophages.

These terpenes treat inflammation without interfering with the antigen presenting function of macrophages.

Anti-infection

Ginger directly suppresses chemokine and partially controls immune response. These terpenes may affect the minimal inhibitory concentration and exhibit synergy with antibiotics, since it was shown that treatment with gingerols increased bacterial Membrane Permeability and facilitated aminoglycoside entry allowing for a more effective antibiotic treatment. 

Anti-tumor 

Ginger terpenes exhibit anticancer activity against several types of cancers through cell rupture and apoptosis. Ginger is not a cure for cancer but understanding the mechanisms and pathways of function can bring researchers closer to treatment.

Terpene mediated Delivery

Gingerol is one of the many terpenes that can be used for more effective drug-delivery and bioavailability. Nonpolar terpenes such as Limonene provide better enhancement for lipophilic drugs than do polar terpenes. Conversely, terpenes containing polar groups such as menthol and 1,8-cineole provide better enhancement for hydrophilic drugs. 

Metabolism 

It is important to note that all the aforementioned effects noted are first-pass metabolism whereby the terpene concentrations are administered orally, pass the liver and get greatly altered prior to reaching the systemic circulation. Vaporization of terpenes is becoming increasingly popular globally.

Vaporization

A common delivery method is vaporization. This method allows accurate and direct dosing as regulated amounts of terpenes directly enter circulation prior to arriving at the liver, increasing bioavailability. There is not much literature regarding second-pass gingerol metabolism. Furthermore, how these particular terpenes interact with Cannabinoids need to be observed. 

Cannabis 

While some terpenes found in ginger are found in cannabis, gingerol is not found in cannabis. Gingerol class terpenes have synergistic effects in combination with cannabinoids. We do not know how these particular terpenes interact with cannabinoids as part of the Entourage Effect.

Chemical Properties

Formula: C17H26O4

Molar mass: 294.38 g/mol

Density: 1100 kg/m³

Boiling point: 353°C

Chemical Structure 

Gingerol

Cannabis Mechanisms for Weight-loss

Studies show that cannabis users seem to have lower BMI than control groups. There is more research to be done but there are several reasons for weight loss with cannabis use.

The Endocannabinoid System plays a vital role in homeostasis by signaling receptors found in the central nervous system and vital organs. The CB1 Receptor is a primary mediator of energy storage, conservation, uptake and general homeostasis. CB1 antagonists are effective not only in reducing body weight, but also in improving the associated Insulin Resistance Conditions

Some Cannabinoids are high-affinity CB1 receptor ligands and potent antagonists. It is important to remember that the cannabinoid affinity is directly affected by Terpenes. Terpenes, cannabinoids and other Cannabis Compounds alter the function of cannabinoid receptors which finetune metabolic functions.

The ratio of competing substrates, Omega-3 to Omega-6 fatty acid within the blood affect the endocannabinoid system and determines N-arachidonoylethanolamide (AEA/anandamide) and 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG) production. When there is too much omega-6 fatty acid, it gets converted to increased AEA and 2-AG, stimulating CB1 and promoting weight gain. 

Omega-3 fatty acids are common as dietary supplements due to their apparent ability to reduce obesity, inflammation by leading to reduced AEA and 2-AG levels and CB1 activity.

Generally, THC results in downregulation of CB1, leading to reduced sensitivity to AEA and 2-AG. It is apparent that long-lasting downregulation of CB1 following cannabis consumption reduces energy storage and increases metabolic rates, thus causing weight reduction of elevated dietary omega-6/omega-3 ratios. 

While adequate research is still required, some hypothesis that CBD is a contributor to weight-loss. CBD does not directly deactivate CB1 receptors, but may influence the production of antagonists to dampen its biological response. Altering affinity of cannabinoid receptors may help reduce appetite, make healthier food more appealing, and regulate metabolic rate.

Certain terpenes possess an anorectic quality. Limonene and Humulene are anti-inflammatory and are commonly used to promote weight loss.

Cannabis strain related weight-loss may occur from behavioral changes associated with cannabis consumption rather than cannabinoid stimulation. 

Pain relieving properties of cannabis allow for more physical activity. These properties are also thought to shorten recovery time between workouts allowing for a more strenuous workout regiment.

Cannabis stimulates the dopamine receptors in the brain responsible for mood. Cannabis users often substitute cannabinoids for food in the brain reward pathways. Individuals can fall into a habit of eating when feeling worried, anxious, nervous, or stressed. Lowering anxiety levels can reduce calorie intake and prevent overeating as a coping mechanism.

Decreased alcohol consumption leads to weight loss, not only because of calorie reduction but also from an increased metabolic rate and decreased fat degradation. 

Research has begun to fully understand the mechanisms associated with weight-loss caused by cannabis consumption. The initial results are promising, but there is more research to be done to fully utilize the clinical potential.

Possible Benefits of Cannabis in Insulin Dependent Diabetes

Recent studies have highlighted a number of potential health benefits of cannabis as a diabetes treatment and suggest that cannabis compounds can produce the following physiological effects:

Phytocannabinoid have been shown to reduce intraocular pressure considerably in people with glaucoma. Epidemiological data suggests that patients with diabetes are at increased risk of developing glaucoma/retinopathy, caused by the blood flow restriction to the eye. Active Cannabis Compounds can suppress arterial inflammation and treat cardiovascular diseases. Cannabinoids and Terpenes aid in vasodilation and improve circulation, while lowering blood pressure and helping reduce the risk of heart disease or other diabetes complications. Specifically, CBD is known to enhance the vasorelaxant responses to avoid cardiomyopathy which is common amongst diabetics. Small monoterpenes exhibit vasorelaxant effects as they increase the cannabinoids affinity to the receptor.

The Endocannabinoid System can prevent nerve inflammation neuropathic pain. Cannabinoids are potent anti-inflammatory agents and signal apoptosis. They stimulate cannabinoid receptors within the nervous system, triggering suppression of cytokine production and induction of T-regulatory cells. Use of topical creams to relieve neuropathic pain and tingling sensations.

Cannabis can help relieve muscle cramps pain. Cannabinoids also interact within the endocannabinoid system in the gastrointestinal tract. Direct activation of CB1 receptors by plant-derived/endogenous compounds reduce both gastric acid secretion and decrease the formation of gastric mucosal lesions.

Cannabinoids play a role in regulating metabolic processes. 

THC activates the CB1R receptor in the brain, which triggers an increased desire to eat. Pro-opiomelanocortin nerve cells, which normally produce feelings of fullness, become activated and promote hunger under the influence of THC. CB1 binding results in the release of  hunger-stimulating chemicals (insulin) rather than appetite-suppressing chemicals (cholecystokinin). THC binds to mitochondria inside of cells and acts to switch to feelings of hunger. increased insulin lowers glucose and stabilises blood sugar levels in diabetics. Specific cannabis strains can decrease blood glucose levels and increase insulin production in people with type 2 diabetes. THC and CBD have been shown to regulate metabolism and blood glucose indicating possible therapeutic glycemic control agents.

Further research and testing is mandatory to fully explain the mechanisms and produce viable diabetes treatment.

Cannabis Social Obligation: System Reform for a Greener Future

We don’t often write opinion pieces but we think it is important that this be said.

It is expected from an individual with a sound mind to act in a non destructive manner to their surroundings. 

Most laws consist of this concept. Do not Kill. Do not steel. Do not cheat. The harm done by these crimes is understandable and receives full support. 

When the traffic light came out the public was confused. There was not enough traffic on the streets to justify waiting at the red light. As traffic increased collisions began to occur and the need gained popularity.

As seat-belts were invented, there was debate regarding seat-belt obligation. This is when the basis of today’s laws becomes prominent. One side argued that the lack of protection causes no harm to a third party. The other side used macroeconomics to explain that though that particular individual was reckless toward himself and not causing additional harm to others, his surrounding suffers as the individual can not generate income. Socialized healthcare is spending additionally for recklessness. Simply the lack of productiveness is a crime by itself. 

This concept is harder for the public to accept. Easier to understand concepts have to be made to justify new laws. Most of the pre-1900 press references to cannabis relate either Medical Usage or Industrial Textile, in the early 1900s, you start to see major newspaper accounts of delirium or death. Later in the drug war, campaigns explaining the abuse caused by users and the damage done to society. The demonization of cannabis remains strong.

When the 2020 Covid-19 Epidemic first started people wore masks to protect themselves from the virus. Those who were not compliant did not. In an attempt to convince the stubborn leaders to approach the problem in a different manner, you must wear the mask to protect others. If you do not wear the mask you are selfish and are causing harm to others. Other reports such as the virus being airborne and contagion in pregnancy aim to propagate support but fail to pass large studies.

Many remain traumatized by the events that are occurring.

Studies show some combination of tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), cannabidiol (CBD) and many Other Parts of Cannabis create the desired therapeutic effect. 

We need more studies that look at whole plant cannabis because this is what people are using in addition to Cannabinoids. It is difficult to do good placebo-controlled trials with whole plant cannabis, but they’re still really needed.

In the meantime people should experiment and find a strain to aid their comfort. As in anything moderation is required. 

The world had two month of Quarantine to rethink its priorities. It seems like everyone is going forward regularly with some symbolic mask. It is time to make a Financial, Judicial and Environmental change based on social responsibility.

Social responsibility is an ethical framework and suggests that an individual has an obligation to act for the benefit of society at large.

It is time to legalize and deregulate cannabis and allow for Scalability in the market.

Commercial and Personal Cannabis Growing Guide

Light

Photons

Provides needed energy and used to produce sugars via photosynthesis 

Measured with photons/light intensity.

Classified by Light spectrum.

Plants use photons as an energy source needed to complete photosynthesis as they carry Energy proportional to their frequency.

Inverse square law states the intensity of light changes inversely to the square of the distance of the source

 I=1/d2

Mathematically, double the distance, energy will be ¼ intensity.

Cannabis light intensity 

Light intensity affects different processes within cannabis and can vary with condition. General growing intensities are as follows.

  • Seedlings and clones 200–400μmol/m²/s.
  • Vegetative phase 400–600μmol/m²/s, 
  • Flowering cannabis 600–1500μmol/m²/s

Light Spectrum

The entire range of electromagnetic radiation consists from various wavelengths which determine the color on the spectrum.

Generally plants use the photosynthetic active range (PAR) of spectrum.

Different chemicals react ideally to different light wavelengths.

  • Chlorophyll A (red,violet, blue)
  • Chlorophyll B (blue,orange)
  • Carotenoids (green,blue) help with eliminating free radical oxygen during photosynthesis to prevent cell degradation
  • Phytochrome (red/infrared) Signals plant to sleep or wake up  and causes florogen production. Has two states Pr (orange/yellow) and Pfr (red/infrared). Helps to keep cannabis in a vegitative state or to blossom.

Cannabis wavelength 

Cannabis prefers the following light colors.

400-460nm in vegitative growth

580-700nm in flowering

Photosynthesis

Photosynthetic cycle and the calvin cycle

6CO2 + 6H20 + (energy) → C6H12O6 + 6O2 Carbon dioxide + water + energy

Calvin cycle 

Does not need light only CO2

3 CO2 + 6 NADPH + 5 H2O + 9 ATP → glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate (G3P) + 2 H+ + 6 NADP+ + 9 ADP + 8 inorganic phosphate

Light Schedule

Cannabis requires 18-6 or continuous 24-hour light during vegitative growth period (little to no dark hours).

Cannabis requires a 12-12 light schedule during flowering.

it is important to keep the dark hours light-free.

Air

CO2 Oxygen osmotic potential

Internal pressure regulated by input and output of oxygen and water

CO2 used for photosynthesis and enters through the stomata.

O2 enters through roots and is a byproduct of photosynthesis.

Exists through the stomata. 

Temperature 

Vegetative Stage: 20-30°C range

Flowering Stage:  18-26°C 

Humidity

  • Clones 70%
  • Vegetative 40-60%
  • Flowering 40-50%
  • Final weeks of flowering 40-45%

Additional CO

The more light intensity the more CO2 cannabis plants need. Cannabis Can Use Up to 1500 PPM  COincreasing COconcentrations can increase yield. Only growers who benefit from added CO2 are those who desire quicker yields. 

Airflow

Always make sure to have air circulation around the plant.

Do not point the fan directly on your plants.

Water and Nutrients 

Water is used for photosynthesis, transpiration and mineral uptake

Water polarity and ph are vital for nutrient uptake.

Watering Cannabis

Watering less often and thoroughly is better than giving your cannabis a little water often.

Make sure to drench the entire medium completely.

Know that slightly underwatering your plants is always better than overwatering as it encourages root formation. 

Primary Minerals 

Cannabis essentially needs 13 minerals for growth

N,P,K,Ca,Mg,S,Fe,B,Zn,Cu, Mn, Mo, Cl

Macro-Nutrients 

Nitrogen, Phosphorus, Potassium (NPK)

Secondary and Nonessential Nutrients

Needed for plant actions and play i vital roll in cannabis’ life cycle.

Deficiency and Toxicity 

Mobile Deficiency shows on the older leaves first.

N,Mg Ni

Imobile Deficiency growth moves from the roots to final location start at the news growth. 

B, Ca, Mg, Fe, Cu, Fe, Zn

Nutrient Schedule

Vegetative Stage

N – P – K

3 – 1 – 2

Flowering Stage

N – P – K

1 – 1 – 2

Final Flowering Stage

N – P – K

0 – 1 – 2

Reduce Nitrogen two weeks after flipping 12/12 light schedule will assist in stopping the vertical growth (stretch) and result in a less leafy, smoother burning, and denser end product. 

Phytohormones

Primary hormones and their function phytochrome

Auxins responsible for cell direction and elongation

Cytokinin works with Auxins and is needed for cell division 

Gibberellins tigres seed to germinate

Ethylene in gaseous form make the responsible for maturation/calyx close up in cannabis

Abscisic protects plant from drought signals the stoma to close 

Florigen signals start of flowering

We can generally categorise the individual phytohormones as working to either promote, inhibit or otherwise affect growth in one way or another.

With correct genetics and epigenetic conditions, a typical grow does not need phytohormone intervention.

Mycorrhizal

Forms a symbiotic association between cannabis and a fungus. The plant makes organic molecules such as sugars by photosynthesis and supplies them to the fungus, and the fungus supplies to the plant water and mineral nutrients from the soil.

In addition to soil medium, cannabis can be grown in water. Lately new gel growing mediums have been developed that automates the growing process. In addition, automated growing tents help have tighter control while growing.

These are guidelines to help you grow your first cannabis harvest. Like any other science, botany consists of experimentation. 

Do not get discouraged, help shape future cannabis genetics. We love to hear your favorite growing techniques.

Ethnoecology of Cannabis

The cross-cultural study of how people perceive and manipulate their environments. 

Cannabis Classification 

Cannabis is classified in the plant family.

Likes to live in disturbed areas with some sunlight. 

Monecious plant that has male and female sex.

Females can produce hundreds of seeds when fertilized.

THC levels drop when fertilized, many growers use sinsemilla (without seeds) techniques that prevent fertilization.

Most molecular phylogeneticists consider Cannabis Sativa as the only species in the genus with many varieties & subspecies such as cannabis sativa, indica and ruderalis. 

Any given variety has various Cannabinoids Composition in the trichomes.

Cannabis Administration

  • Inhaled 
  • Swallowed and absorbed in the gastrointestinal tract
  • Absorbed through mucosal membranes
  • Absorbed through skin

Ethnobotanical Use of Cannabis 

There are numerous Active Compounds in cannabis 

Variety of different uses ranging from glaucoma to topical applications 

Botanical Medicine

Compound Delivery Methods

Transdermal Absorption 

Fighting Viral and Bacterial Infections

Parkinson’s Disorder

Ocular Pathology

Toothpaste

Biodegradable Plastics

Cannabis Anatomy 

Stem 

Cannabis pith (inner layer) is surrounded by a woody core called the hurd.

The hurd is a source for tough hemp fiber.

Node 

Growth points along the stem.

Cola

A cola refers to tightly clustered buds. Smaller colas occur along the budding sites, the main cola (apical bud) forms at the very top of the plant.

Stigma and pistil

The pistil contains the reproductive parts of the flower. Stigmas serve to collect pollen from males. They play an important role in reproduction.

Bract and calyx

A bract encapsulates the carpel (female’s reproductive parts). It is covered in resin glands which produce high concentrations of cannabinoids in cannabis. Enclosed by these bracts and imperceptible to the eye, the calyx refers to a translucent layer over the ovule at a flower’s base.

Trichome

Glands on the leaves, stems, and calyxes. Trichomes were originally developed to protect the plant against predators and the elements. These clear aromatic oils contain Terpenes and Cannabinoids like THC and CBD. 

Cannabis Origins 

Native Geography

Domesticated Eurasia 10000 years ago for various uses 

One of the oldest domesticated plant 

Hemp dyed with indigo dye was used for trading while others found other uses for the Cannabis plant.

Non-human dispersal methods

  • Terrestrial animals
  • Birds
  • Streams
  • Insects 

Selective Breeding 

Cannabis traits

Well adapted to live in Anthrome (biomes)

Used for Food, fiber, medicine, psychotropic effects

Human impact

Ecological traits- growing close to humans knowns as ethnoecology

Horticultural- encouraging desirable traits by direct hybridization 

There is a growing trend to grow CBD rich flowers in areas THC is still restricted.

Research is unveiling CBD’s potential and will over time have Genetic Outcomes.

We can not predict the role cannabis will serve in the future and how our intervention will impact future strains’ genetics, but there is still much research to be done to maximize cannabis’s potential.

Cannabis Marketing Explained

The cannabis industry has been expanding, new products, dispensaries, grow supplies and medical research are all gaining interest.

The legal framework is shifting almost daily does not stop investors, researchers, and entrepreneurs from entering the field. Exposure remains a hurdle on the way to Scalability

Advertising platforms are having a hard time keeping up with varying regulations. 

Paid advertising is either tricky or straight up impossible for many cannabis-related products due to the Terms of Service of many advertising platforms.

Top ranked positions now hold valuable growth opportunities as they allow for dedicated user following and monetization.

While the techniques often change, there are some concepts to keep in mind.

Keywords 

Simply think like your users, what would you type to find your content, what will your friends write if they were interested. Now envision your perfect user’s search intent.

Keyword research is not difficult. Just go for the keywords with low SEO difficulty and high search volume. 

User Experience

Load time

Everything is happening quickly, users demand fast load time. 

Interface 

How easy is it to navigate your site?

Does it get stuck?

Are there distracting popups?

Did you guide your user to the correct page?

Do forms require a specific input method?

Does the user gain benefit?

User behavior 

How long were visitors on site?

How often do they return to the site?

How many pages did they visit?

Did they perform a user action?

Added Value 

Knowledge convenience, affordability, quality and comfort are just some benefits that may be provided. Time is important. 

Domain Authority 

Backlinks

The more people mention you the more exposure there is.

Backlink Source : Are they themselves credible or in the same industry?

Backlink Activity: How active and relevant is the link?

A mark of quality is returning visitors, that indicates satisfaction. 

Domain History

The more active a platform the more potential for growth.

Domain age, volatility of ownership and prestigious affiliations to assess apparent prestige.

A business with a long active history is more authoritative.

These advertising principles apply to all online advertising methods. Automated Paid (SEM), Organic Search Optimization (SEO), Media Buying, and Social networks. Web presence is vitally important.

Before building an advertising strategy, check the terms of service of your platform and web hosting.

Every great startup needs people who believe in it.