Pinene belongs to a bicyclic monoterpene chemical group and has two molecular forms: alpha-pinene and beta-pinene. The two are identical except for molecular arrangement affecting the optical rotation and accounting for their different characteristics and actions.
In nature and in cannabis profiles, alpha-pinene is more prevalent than beta-pinene.
Alpha-pinene is responsible for the distinctive smell of pine needles in some herbs. Pinine is found in rosemary. It also accounts for the smell of pine oil, turpentine, and citrus peel.
α-Pinene is highly bioavailable with 60% human pulmonary uptake with rapid metabolism or redistribution.
Beta form also plays an important role in protecting the body.
Beta-pinene contributes to the fragrance of many cooking herbs including oregano, parsley and dill. In cannabis, it usually occurs in smaller concentrations, and works synergistically with other terpenes to create complex interactions within the endocannabinoid system. For example, beta-pinene appears to play a role in the production of other major terpenes,such as Myrcene, Limonene and works to fight Viral Infections.
Several studies in recent years have revealed that pinene has a number of significant health benefits, including:
Pinene is the most abundant terpene in nature and is obtained industrially by fractional distillation from various sources. It assists other tepene formations and works within the Endocannabinoid System.
This terpene is the main constituent in turpentine.
Some other sources include,pine trees, juniperus , cypress cannabis and other aromatic plants.
There are many sources for these valuable terpenes as they are widespread throughout industrial processes and product development.
High pinene Juniper is a major flavoring ingredient in gin
selective oxidation of pinene with some catalysts gives many compounds for perfumery and are used in cosmetics, bath oils and vaping products.
Juniper berry containing high concentrations of pinine is used widely in Traditional Medicine
digestion problems including upset stomach,
The Greeks used Juniper as a purifying herb
The ancient Egyptians used Juniper extensively as a medicine and also to embalm their dead. French nurses burned Juniper in hospital rooms to fumigate them.
During the middle ages
By the 17th century Juniper was a popular diuretic (increasing urine flow).
The Chinese, American Indians, and old European cultures of medicine all highly regarded Juniper as a blood purifying kidney tonic.
The berries have been found efficient in gonorrhoea, gleet, leucorrhoea, cystirrhoea, affections of the skin, scorbutic diseases, etc. Pyelitis, pyelo-nephritis, and cystitis when chronic, and particularly when in old people, are relieved by juniper. Uncomplicated renal hyperemia (excess blood in the kidneys) was cured by it.
Pinene can affect the body’s pain receptors to reduce discomfort and is particularly effective in easing pain associated with MS, arthritis, and fibromyalgia.
Pinene can help to protect cells from excessive oxidation, which can cause apoptosis and make the body susceptible to a variety of diseases.
Pinene can reduce inflammation. Excessive inflammation can depress the immune system and stress cells and tissues.
Pinene can ease congestion and constriction in the lungs and bronchial areas, making breathing easier for people with asthma and other pulmonary conditions.
Some laboratory research reveals that beta-pinene with limonene can be effective in killing the common herpes simplex virus.
Gastrointestinal system protection:
Pinene has been shown to protect the lining of the stomach and other parts of the gastrointestinal system against inflammation and lesions from conditions such as ulcers and Crohn’s disease.
Alpha-pinene is active as an acetylcholinesterase inhibitor that reduces acetylcholinesterase activity to boost your memory. Cholinesterase inhibitors are commonly used to treat dementia. This feature could counteract short-term memory deficits induced by compound-related intoxication.
Pinene is great for supporting skin health, studies suggest that alpha-Pinene may help keep the skin looking healthy and may help reduce the appearance of blemishes when applied topically.
Pinene in Cannabis
Pinene can inhibit the negative effects that come from consuming too much THC, such as short-term memory loss and feelings of fear and paranoia. That’s because it can cross the blood brain barrier and directly affect the behavior of neurotransmitters in the brain, including GABA, a chemical that modulates Mood, and the brain’s receptors for benzodiazepine medications.
While small amounts of alpha-pinene may result in health benefits, large amounts of alpha-pinene can be harmful. Large amounts of anything, can pose a threat to our health. Like anything else dosage is key.
The FDA has approved commercial alpha-pinene use in low-exposure levels in the cosmetic and flavor profile industries , so you won’t have to worry about providing healthy, safe products for your fans. Just follow dosing directions and seek the advice of a reputable authority if you are unsure about whether your alpha-pinene exposure levels are appropriate for your application.
Molar mass: 136.238 g/mol
Density: 858 kg/m³
Boiling point: 156 °C