Guidelines for Producing CBD/THC Vape Cartridges.

Most people get their Cannabis Vape cartridges from a dispensary or online retailer. No matter where the source, cartridges need to be filled before they are sold. A lot of cost is associated with the painstaking process of filling cartridges often one by one. If you have been wondering what the ratios for filling a full spectrum cannabis or CBD vape cartridge and what the process is, or just wanted to see a step by step guide for mixing and filling vape cartridges, you’ve come to the right place. In this tutorial, we’ll teach the mixing ratios of terpenes, Cannabis oil/Hemp oil, and Viscosity Booster and exactly how to fill a dab pen. We’ll be mixing and filling our pens from scratch using a tried and true process that there isn’t a whole lot of info online about. if you’re looking to start a vape pen company and need to know the first steps, read on as we break down the entire process for mixing and filling a vape cartridge at home.

Cartridge Filling Supplies

  • Cartridges
  • Viscosity Booster/Liquifier
  • THC/CBD Oil or concentrate
  • Pure Terpenes – Cannabis or Plant Derived
  • Hot Water Bath or – a Pot, Bowl, and stove top
  • 10ml Syringe with 14 Gauge Blunt tip
  • Alcohol wipes for cleaning
  • Metal Mixing Ramiken
  • Digital Scale
  • Gloves

Pure Botanical/Cannabis Derived Terpenes

Terpenes are credited with giving Cannabis a uniquely broad spectrum Effect . provide scents and tastes. New Technologies allow terpene infused products that will both capture the recreational cannabis audience and interest the health-conscious consumer. Some terpenes like Limonene increase energy while some terpenes like Myrcene promote relaxation. It is essential to choose a strain profile or terpene combination to support the type of feeling you would like to experience. Not only are there over 200 distinct terpenes that can be present in Cannabis but terpene profiles can often contain over 50 different terpenes in just one strain. Terpene scents range from earthy, pungent to gassy, or pinny, citrusy,and even fruity. Each consumer has individual preferences. It is recommended to experiment with different terpene profiles until you find one that fits you perfectly. 

Vape Cartridges

Having a quality vape cartridge ready for stores often starts with picking quality vape cartridge hardware. Cartridges these days are often prone to damage during shipping, leakage and even corrosion. It is crucial to extensively research everything to avoid unwanted interactions within the cartilage.

There are various styles to choose from depending on preference in design and the viscosity of your oil. Mouthpieces options include wood, ceramic, plastic, and metal. Tank options include various shapes and sizes. Cartridges usually come standard with a 2mm diameter intake hole which can be seen inside the cartridge tank. This hole is where your oil will enter to meet the atomizer which will atomize or “vaporize” your oil into an inhalable vapor. High viscosity oils are typically a sign of pure oil indicating that only terpenes were mixed in. When high viscosity oil is put inside a cartridge, it produces an air bubble that does not easily move when the cartridge is flipped upside down. Low viscosity oils produce a faster moving bubble and are typically made by blending viscosity booster/liquefier/diluent and terpenes with the Cannabis or Hemp oil. Low viscosity oils may require a smaller intake hole to prevent leakage but using a quality cartridge should prevent dilutions of up to 30%. You can use any concentrate by mixing it with a viscosity booster.

Viscosity Booster

Viscosity booster is a great way to control your potency and stretch your dollar. Viscosity Booster also makes for a smoother smoke as it allows the concentrate to be turned into vapor with less heat than the oil alone. While some users prefer to have the strongest cartridge available in their arsenal, others prefer to have a cartridge that produces a comfortable micro dosing effect. There are many viscosity boosters on the market which all do pretty much the same thing. When choosing a viscosity booster, it is recommend using one that doesn’t Include Vegetable Glycerin(VG), Propylene Glycol(PG), Polyethylene glycol(PEG) or any of the others commonly used in e-cig “Vape Juice.” Not only is viscosity booster for controlling your dosage, but you will also find that by following this process you will be able to double if not triple the amount of product you have at the perfect dose. Remember, this is about creating the perfect product for your needs. While someone may need 100mgs of vapor, it is not uncommon for some to need/want 10-20mgs.

THC/CBD Oil or Concentrate

The most important ingredient on the list should be the concentrate or oil you want to use in your vape cartridge. While it is recommended to use Cannabis/Hemp Oil (Distillate) for ease of use, it is also fairly simple to use concentrates like Rosin, Shatter, Budder, Sugar, Sauce, etc… As mentioned before, high-quality oil should be highly viscous but what if all you have is Shatter, Sauce or Rosin? Not to worry. You can easily heat and mix your concentrate with liquefier and terpenes while blending until the liquid is fully emulsified and ready for use in a cartridge. using VG, PEG, or PG when using a “Solid Concentrate” is not recommended as some separation may occur.

Other Supplies

This can get messy when you are a beginner. To make things easy and clean, it is recommended to use gloves, alcohol wipes, and fresh syringes. 

Process: How to Mix and Fill a Cartridge

The filling is often the messiest and challenging part for a first-time filler. Not only will you need to watch for spillage and waste but you will need to be careful not to overfill your cartridges. You will want to be vigilant about not going all the way to the very top of the cartridge as you fill. There’s nothing worse than doing all the pre-filling set up just to waste your product at the end. Some cartridges have a fill line, so you know where to stop while others don’t. In this process, you will learn to properly heat up your ingredients, mix Terpenes and Viscosity Booster with THC/CBD Oil then use a syringe to fill your cartridges. These instructions are for using 5mls(5 Grams) of oil. It is recommended to use milliliters when measuring for accuracy but using a scale that reads Grams will be just fine.

Step 1

Warm up your Oil or Concentrate to about 85-90 degrees Celsius 

Step 2

Check to see if your oil is warmed up – It is ready to go when the oil is fully liquified, and there are no chunks of concentrate at the bottom or floating around. 

If you are using a concentrate other than oil ex: Shatter, you will need to mix the concentrate and the viscosity booster with heat applied. A two to one ratio is a good place to start, but you can always add more concentrate to increase the potency and viscosity or more viscosity booster to lower the potency and viscosity. It really comes down to your preference.

Step 3

Take your liquified Oil or liquified concentrate mixture and add in your Terpenes and Viscosity Booster. If you already added Viscosity Booster because you are using a concentrate other than Oil/Distillate you can choose to add more Viscosity booster or leave it out completely. The ratio for terpenes and oil can be to your preference, but it is recommended doing 5-10% Terpenes and 5-10%Viscosity Booster for a total of 10-20%.the guide, we did 5ml (or 5 Grams) off full spectrum CBD Oil, 0.5ml of Terpenes, and 0.5mls of Viscosity Booster totaling 6mls(or 6 Grams) of finished product ready for use in a pen. Generally speaking mimicking the flower’s natural concentrations is the best approach.

Step 4

Blend/Mix all the ingredients very well. There should be no difference in color or viscosity throughout the entire mixture. The whole mix must be fully emulsified.

Step 5

Once everything is blended, you will want to suck it up with a syringe.

After the oil mixture is inside the syringe, it is ready to be poured inside the cartridge.

Step 6

The syringe should have volume marks reading in milliliters. You will put 1ml into a 1ml cartridge and 0.50mls into a half gram or .5 ml cartridge. Fill to the mark if the cartridge has one, if not fill the cartridge until it is nearly full with some room for an air bubble at the top. The air bubble is used by some people to gauge the potency of a cartridge. This technique works well for oil but does not apply to cartridges made with other concentrates.

Step 7

Once your cartridges are full, cap them tight and flip them over to “Rest.” Let them rest for 1 hour. During this period and air that was compressed and trapped during the cartridge filling and capping process will have the chance to escape out of the intake holes. Flipping your cartridge during the rest period will allow the air to escape without causing your cartridge to leak. This is a critical step!

Step 8

Using alcohol wipe or an alcohol-soaked paper towel, clean off the outside of your cartridge of any excess oil that may have been spilled onto it from a drippy syringe or overfilled cartridge

Test Product!

After your product has rested, test it out! 

Terpenes and boosters are tested extensively before sold to customers. Producing them in house is therefore very expensive. When using lab tested ingredients and working according to protocol your product is safe.

Start with small hits to make sure the ceramic coil or heating element is primed and ready for use. Priming your cartridge is a great way to ensure maximum flavor from start to finish without getting a burnt taste.

It is crucial to have the right equipment and knowledge before attempting to produce cartilages. 

Any unwanted interaction can be fatal.

If cartilages are made correctly they are a safe way to deliver accurate doses of cannabis.

Cartilages are designed to be customizable to preferences.

Phylogenetics- Hidden Characteristics of Cannabis

The cannabis that you smoke today is likely descended from cannabis ancestors that form the bedrock of the cannabis breeding pool since ancient times. The varieties referenced are not strains, but rather the entire groups cannabis strains came from.

Plants of the Cannabis genus are the only prolific producers of phytocannabinoids, compounds that strongly interact with the evolutionarily ancient Endocannabinoid Receptors. Cannabis has been cultivated not only for these compounds, but also for Material. Today, specialized varieties yielding high-quality textile fibers, nutritional seed oil, or high cannabinoid content are cultivated across the globe. However, the genetic identities and histories of these diverse populations remain largely obscured.

Cannabis History 

The cannabis species originated and was originally domesticated in Central Asia. The origin story and family tree has been often debated. However, botany leaders aim to bring some clarification to help save the ancestor of all modern cannabis. 

Phylogenetics 

The study of evolutionary relationships between groups of organisms, 

We have some basis for classifying plants according to their genetic similarities and trace ancestry. 

Cladistic System 

Relies on the presence of a single common ancestor. In this way, every clade (branch) of the phylogenetic tree contains the descendants of a single common ancestor. When many plants share a common ancestor, they are said to be monophyletic.

Genetic Origin

Cannabaceae includes roughly 170 species from 10 genera: Cannabis (hemp and marijuana), Humulus (hops), and eight genera that were formerly in the Celtidaceae (hackberry) family. Prior to the 21st century, the Cannabaceae family was only thought to include the Cannabis and Humulus genera. It wasn’t until recently that researchers merged Celtidaceae and Cannabaceae based on genetic evidence.

Cannabinoids 

One distinctive feature of the Cannabis genus is the production of a large diversity of compounds called Cannabinoids, they are so named because they are not produced in high levels in any other plant species

Additionally, the third subspecies of cannabis is cannabis sativa subsp ruderalis. Ruderalis is a wild variety that has low THC contents and is autoflowering or day neutral.

Nomenclature 

All modern cannabis plants are of the family and species cannabis sativa. For many in the cannabis industry Indica and Sativa have been the bedrock of how people communicate the morphology and subjective effects of the plant. However, science has begun to classify by chemovar. The terpene and cannabinoid profile in the plant is a better indicator of effect than the shape of the plant. The synergistic combination of compounds contributes to the Entourage Effect also known as the ensemble effect.

Human Interference

The biggest threats to these landrace cannabis varieties come from humanity. In the search for the best plants for effect, yield, resistance to disease and other characteristics humans have interbred these landraces. Thousands of years of widespread domestication resulted in unaltered wild cannabis plants disappearing. The cannabis plants that humans breed around the world have been heavily cross-bred and selected for certain traits, resulting in a complicated mixture of genes.

Biodiversity 

Genetic advances allow us to better select favorable traits. In doing so endemic species are often impacted through reduction in seeds for reproduction taken by humans for breeding or cultivation. Selective cultivation often leads to artificial selection for traits rather than reproductive fitness or genetic diversity. Overtime, these varieties escape domestication and go feral, altering the gene pool of the native plants.

Cataloging

The cannabis today is far different than cannabis smoked in history. The importance of Cataloging the cannabis genotype and terpene profiles is vital to help future generations experience today’s cannabis and retrace back to preferred strains. 

The Solution

The cannabis industry and world at large will hopefully share the responsibility to preserve the biodiversity of the cannabis species. This will include protecting the habitat, reducing feral cannabis populations and the harvest, export and import of wild or native cannabis plants or seeds to to recreate them locally through recombination. 

Additionally analyzing strains for genotypes, aromatic profiles and other traits will allow us to recreate variations if necessary.

By updating a genetic database and replicating the aromatic profile of cannabis varieties using analytical testing and utilizing terpenes sourced from other plants: Linalool from lavender, Myrcene from lemon balm or Limonene from oranges. We can trace steps to insure the plant’s future survival.

Marijuana: Neurochemistry &Physiology

After years of fierce debate, increasing amounts of objective, non- judgmental research is available although it is made difficult due to the complexity of the cannabis plant. Cannabis contains hundreds of different molecules. The plant is able to synthesize these cannabinoid compounds which is a family of 150 cannabinoids including the very well known compound THC. 

Though these compounds can affect many physical functions in the body, it is mostly used recreationally. 

Botany 

Cannabis has many strains with various terpene profiles, however, many botanists believe there are just three species of Cannabis plants. 

Cannabis sativa, a tall plant that is grown throughout the world. It can be cultivated to produce large amounts of THC, the chemical that produces psychic effects. It can be grown, as it has been for thousands of years, or indoors.

Hemp, a source of fiber for rope, concrete, plastic and cloth. Hemp plants contain minimal amounts of THC. they grow rapidly to large sizes and provide sustainable, scalable and eco-friendly material solutions.

Cannabis indica, a short pungent plant often called skunk weed, with high concentrations of THC and a distinct terpene profile. It is especially plentiful in India and the Middle-east though it can be grown anywhere. It is usually the source of hashish and other concentrates or extracts. 

Cannabis ruderalis, found mostly in Central Asia, but it has no use as a fiber and its psychic effects are minimal. In an effort to increase the plant’s potency, cannabis growers use the sinsemilla technique. This method prevents the female plants from being pollinated by the male plants thus increasing the concentration of THC. 

Brain Chemistry 

Stronger varieties of cannabis can produce distortions of time, color, and sound. As with other psychoactive compounds, cannabis’s botanical compounds mimic neurochemicals that exist naturally in the human body and brain. These internal brain chemicals are called endogenous cannabinoids or endocannabinoids.

The first one discovered was anandamide followed by 2 arachidonoylglycerol designated 2AG. Generally, there are 10 times the amount of anandamides in our body and brain as there are the endorphins. Anandamides are  involved in a huge range of functions, they work to modulate and modify, by either increasing or decreasing the sensitivity of our mind.

Anandamides, like all neurotransmitters, help transmit messages from one nerve cell to receptor sites on an adjoining nerve cell. This combination of electrical and chemical signals within the 100 billion cells that make up the central nervous system, help the brain communicate with the outside world through its senses and within itself through memories, emotions, and thoughts. 

Endocannabinoid System

So far, researchers have conclusively identified 2 types of receptor sites: the CB1 and CB2 receptors. The CB1 receptors are found primarily in the brain and their activation results in the psychoactive effects of cannabis. This is because THC mimics anandamide, the endocannabinoid that naturally activates these receptors. 

CB2 receptors are found throughout the body and are much more involved in changing the ocular pressure, heart rate, blood pressure, and pain sensitivity. 

By understanding the neurochemical and physiological effects of cannabis, it is possible to make better judgments about the possible cannabis use or refined cannabinoids for medical applications. 

By extracting and isolating these molecules from cannabis we can focus only on the ones that have the medicinal potential.

Cannabinoid Stimulation

Mood

One part of the brain rich in endocannabinoid receptors is the amygdala, found in the brain’s emotional center. A crucial function of the amygdala is to signal a sense of novelty particularly when one encounters a new situation, idea, or even new surroundings.  

As the amygdala is continually stimulated with THC, the CB1 receptors respond with delight. With excess use, these cells react to the overstimulation by retracting into the cell membrane and becoming inactive (self regulation). This process is known as down regulation. 

Once receptor sites are down regulated, it takes approximately two weeks for them to recover. This reversible process can help in fighting mood disorders.

Reward/Reinforcement Center 

Has high levels of endocannabinoids and CB1 receptors. When stimulated, a cascade effect bathes the core of this system, the nucleus accumbens, in dopamine, causing a feeling of accomplishment or gratification. These mechanisms are limited by tolerance.  

Memory

The highest concentration of cannabinoids in the body is the hippocampus. The hippocampus is involved in short term memory conversion to long term memory. 

Neurons produce endocannabinoids to shut off memory because we can not remember everything. When we overstimulate, it actually cuts down on the amount of short term memory and changes the frontal lobe activity responsible for decision making. Regulating cannabinoid receptors is key for future medical use.

Motor Activity

A third area of the brain that has very high concentration of cannabinoids naturally is in the basal ganglia and the cerebellum, involved in controlling motor activity to relaxe the muscles and reduce pain. Overall causes a decreased reaction time to situations and slows physical movements. This can be regulated by changing the affinity and concentration of cannabinoids in the system. 

Perception 

Generally there are two main cannabinoids, THC and CBD. these cannabinoids work synergistically and affect the ability to follow moving objects and effects the ability to carry out complex tasks. 

Appetite

The  endocannabinoids regulate appetite by the level of stimulation they cause in a set of CB1 receptors in the hypothalamus. By stimulating the receptors appetite is greatly increased. Research indicates that blocking selective CB1 receptor sites instead of stimulating them, causes a reduction in appetite and significant weight loss. 

Respiratory Effects

Cannabis alters  the immune defenses against infection. While smoking is always bad for the lungs, cannabis contains compounds that lower inflammation and fight bacterial infections.

Psychological Effects 

Cannabis has been reported to improve neurocognitive and psychiatric conditions, such as Alzheimer disease, anxiety disorders and bipolar disorder.

In addition, potentially reducing PTSD symptoms, cannabis also mitigates the propensity for inflammation and may be useful in psychological conditions that involve elevated inflammatory processes within the brain.

Effects

Cannabis works on the Endocannabinoid System. Compounds such as terpenes help change the affinity of the cannabinoids to the respective receptors. The medical applications are vast. As we understand more about various mechanisms in our body we uncover further benefits.

Hemp Makes Great Biodegradable Plastic

While hemp was previously produced in the U.S. for hundreds of years, its usage diminished in favor of alternatives. 

Hemp fiber, for instance, which had been used to make rope and clothing, was replaced by less expensive jute and abaca imported from Asia. Ropes made from these materials were lighter and more buoyant, and more resistant to salt water than hemp rope, which required tarring.

Improvements in technology further contributed to the decline in hemp usage. The cotton gin, for example, eased the harvesting of cotton, which replaced hemp in the manufacture of textiles.

Some of the earliest plastics were made from cellulose fibers obtained from organic, non-petroleum-based sources such as CBD biomass. The cost of these bioplastics was higher than traditional plastics.

As the industry shifted away from hemp products, regulation got stricter, making it less profitable than other less regulated materials. 

Today the industry is shifting back to hemp products. There are many advantages to hemp.  It is biodegradable, renewable and versatile.

Recent technology has opened the door to a new type of eco-friendly polymer. No longer reliant on petroleum, these bio-plastics are renewable, sustainable and often made using agricultural waste.

Hemp plastic will be a game changer for many industries especially consumer products.

Eco-friendly products ensure a more sustainable future.

3D printing 

Variety of processes in which material is joined or solidified under computer control to create a three-dimensional object. 3D printing is used in both rapid prototyping and additive manufacturing

Blow Molding 

Method of fabrication in which a heated plastic mass is forced into the share of a mold cavity by internal gas pressure.

Cast Film 

Is a film made by depositing a layer of plastic, either molten, in solution, or in a dispersion, onto a surface, solidifying and removing the film from the surface. Films can also be made from Extrusion.

Compression Molding 

The method of molding a material already in a confined cavity by applying pressure and usually heat. This process if often used in closure manufacturing.

Extrusion Molding 

Process in which heated plastic is forced through a shaping orifice (a die) in one continuously formed shape, as in film, sheet, rod or tubing

Injection Molding 

The process of forming a material by forcing it, in a molten state and under pressure, into the cavity of a closed mold. This is the most common production method used with Hemp Plastics.

Rotational Molding 

Molding process where pulverized resin is placed in the mold at high rotational speed to ensure resin dispersion. Once in place, the resin is baked in the mold to form the usable part. This process is used often to manufacture large, heavy plastic parts.

Thermoforming 

Forming process in which a heated plastic sheet is molded through heat and pressure and trimmed to create a usable product. This process is often used in multi-layer packaging.

Thermoplastic 

Plastic that repeatedly can be softened by heating and hardened by cooling. In the softened state can be shaped. 90% of plastics are produced in this form.

Thermoset 

Plastic that, after having been cured by heat or other means, is substantially, infusible and insoluble.

Transfer Molding 

Method of forming articles by fusing a plastic material in a chamber and then forcing essentially the whole mass into a hot mold where it solidifies.

Vacuum Forming 

Forming process in which a heated plastic sheet is drawn against the mold surface by evacuating the air between it and the mold.

New Generation Plastics

Though the cost of cannabis derived bio-plastic is higher, the environmental impact is vast. The rise in demand and environmental consciousness empowers use of extracted hemp biomass in the cannabis industry and beyond. 

Current plastic is destroying the environment, it is time to take a step back to protect the planet and give your product a competitive edge with biodegradable hemp plastic.