Myrcene Profile

Myrcene derives its name from a Brazilian medicinal shrub called myrcia sphaerocarpa.

The scent is characterized by its earthy, musky, clove-like and pungent. Aside from cannabis, it can be found in basil, mangoes and other plants . The unique therapeutic effects may contribute meaningfully to the Entourage Effect. Myrcene synergizes the activities of terpenes and other compounds in a variety of ways.

Sedative Effects

Myrcene shows anxiolytic and hypnotic effects upon inhaled administration, however, hypnotic effect by oral supplementation has not been determined yet. 

Myrcene and α-Pinene increase GABAA receptor activity in cell experiments. 

Analgesic Effects 

Myrcene analgesic and anti-inflammatory actions can be attributed to reduction of peripheral nociception by inhibition of prostaglandin release. In other words, it helps to reduce the perception of pain by helping to stimulate opioid receptor assisting in pain relief.

Anti-Nociceptive Effects

It appears that Myrcene lowers resistance across the blood brain barrier, improving permeability, so that β-myrcene itself and many other chemicals (including the analgesic THC) may cross the barrier more effectively.

Anti-Inflammatory Effects

Myrcene could inhibit the LPS-induced inflammation, including cell migration, which is a key feature of pleurisy and generally of inflammatory response. β-myrcene was found to have immunoregulatory activity, inhibiting the production of nitrogen oxide (NO), as well as cytokines Interferon gamma (IFNγ) and Interleukin-4 (IL-4), which is normally overproduced during excessive inflammation.

Anti-Diabetes Effects

Shown to improve glucose tolerance in diabetics without effects on glucose level in non-diabetics. This means that myrcene can be used as preventative medicine.

It is important to understand that effective treatment for diabetes and hypertension are preliminary and need further research.

Anti-Mutagenic Effects

Myrcene is an organic compound with anti-mutagenic properties. It reduced the toxic and mutagenic effects of a form and reduced the medication’s ability to induce sister chromatid exchange (SCE). The abnormal occurrence of SCE is a potential marker for cancer.

Myrcene’s inhibition of the liver enzyme CYP2B1 is responsible for these anti-mutagen effects. Myrcene also mitigates DNA damage from toxins. 

Hypertension

Myrcene has also been used for many years as a folk remedy for diabetes.

Monoterpenes also produce significant effects on the cardiovascular system, promoting, among other actions, vasorelaxation, decreased heart rate, and hypertension.

Improves Immune Function

Myrcene has been found to improve immune function by inhibiting the production of nitrogen oxide in immune cells, returning elevated stress levels in the immune system to near-normal. Further research is needed to fully understand myrcene’s mechanisms and interactions.

Safety 

The terpene is not classified as dangerous in unconcentrated form. The flavor poses no hazards under normal conditions of handling and usage. If misused in its concentrated form, the flavor may be harmful to health.  It is very important to know precisely the concentration for each application and delivery method.

Storage

Keep the container tightly sealed. Store in a cool, dry, secure, flammable storage area away from all sources of ignition. Protect from light, avoid uncoated metal containers, and keep air contact to a minimum. Incompatible with strong oxidizing agents, acids and bases. Avoid extended storage by using as soon as possible within designated shelf life.

Chemical Properties 

Formula: C10H16

Molar mass: 136.23 g/mol

Density: 794 kg/m³

Boiling point: 167 °C

Chemical Structure

Cannabinoids for COVID-19

Recently it has been discovered that cannabis, specifically CBD, can dramatically improve and reduce inflammation caused by COVID-19 leading to organ failure in advanced cases. In contrast to steroids, which can also reduce the inflammation and suppress the immune system, cannabinoids can reduce the inflammation without suppressing the immune system. It may be possible to reduce the inflammation and enable the immune system to attack the virus.

The lungs are the organ most affected by COVID-19, causing pneumonia that rapidly progresses to acute respiratory distress syndrome and can further result in respiratory failure, septic shock, or multi-organ failure, and in the most severe cases death.
There is not much published research on the effects of cannabinoids on Viral Infections, but quite a bit of anecdotal evidence exists.

Endocannabinoid System

Cannabinoids, such as THC and CBD, have been shown to have pain-relieving, sleep-inducing, and anti-inflammatory properties. Terpenes play a crucial role in Regulation of the endocannabinoid system. Cannabis may help reduce body aches, ease inflammation of the airways, and increase relaxation and enable sleep. In addition antipyretic or fever-reducing properties, due to its ability to regulate the immune system.

Mechanism

The endocannabinoid system is responsible for intercellular communication.

Mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) are small particles that are created when stem cells get multiplied. 

Exosomes are lipid bilayer-enclosed structures, released by cells and involved in intercellular communication. Exosomes-inhibiting agents can sensitize and slow infection and even reduce cancer.

Recent in-vivo and in-vitro studies have demonstrated that exosomes derived from MSC can promote regeneration and improve immune reaction processes in damaged tissues. Exosomes contain anti-inflammatory agents that can target inflamed organs. 

Researchers have already successfully loaded exosomes with various molecules. They have also succeeded in treating different tissue injuries in animal models, while significantly reducing inflammation and pathological impairment. To date, there have been hundreds of publications and several clinical studies using exosomes globally, demonstrating their therapeutic potential at different applications.

Immune Response 

It is important to understand that exacerbation of the condition is due to the excessive immune response of the body against the virus. Cannabis compounds have the ability to lower the immune system’s response without suppressing it, thereby providing better complementary treatment than steroids, which completely suppresses the immune system.

Cannabis Research 

Medical cannabis companies are joining Biotech and Biomed companies in the race to develop a cure. Previous Research on the effect of the cannabis plant on human cells can accelerate the arrival of complementary treatment.

If cannabis succeeds as a complementary treatment, it will be an achievement for the industry. 

Terpenes and ocular pathology

How can terpenes affect eye health, vision, and visual perception?

Cannabis might provide performance benefits at low doses through relaxation and possible improvement of auditory and visual perception.

Vision

Cannabis can improve the speed in which the eye responds to dim stimuli. Previous reports have documented an improvement in night vision among Jamaican fishermen after ingestion of a crude tincture of herbal cannabis, while two members of this group noted that Moroccan fishermen and mountain dwellers observe an analogous improvement after smoking kif.

They were able to show that this happened because of Cannabinoid Binding with the CB1 receptor, and inhibiting a protein called NKCC1, which shuttles chloride ions in and out of cells to determine their electrical potential. 

Blood-Flow

Cannabis lowers blood pressure which dilates the blood vessels and increases blood flow throughout the body. Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), relaxes arterial walls resulting in lower blood pressure and increased blood flow to tissues. In the brain, THC regulates the microvascular environment via dose-dependent dilation of cerebral arterioles

Left Occipital 

Cannabis-induced changes in the left occipital area, a region in the back of the brain that processes visual information. Decreased activation in the right prefrontal, medial and dorsal parietal, and medial cerebellar regions, but greater activation in various frontal, parietal and occipital brain regions during the visual-attention tasks

Macular Degeneration 

The symptoms of macular degeneration revolve around vision. The light-sensitive retina cells deteriorate, leading to blind spots.
Endocannabinoid receptors have been found around the ocular region, cannabis use has been found to reduce inflammation, inhibit vascular endothelial growth factor and lower intraocular pressure. Showing incredible promise for cannabis as a treatment for macular degeneration.

Improve Night-Vision.

Experiments show that cannabinoids reduce the concentration of chloride ions inside the retinal ganglion cells, making them more excitable and more sensitive to light,

This effect is dose-dependent and cannabinoid-mediated at the retinal level.

There’s more research to be conducted, however, the results suggest that some of the compounds in cannabis could potentially be useful for treating diseases such as retinitis pigmentosa and glaucoma, which kill off cells in the retina and gradually cause blindness.

Methods

These treatments can be achieved by both systemic or localized methods. There are several ocular drops being developed for a wide range of conditions. Therapeutic benefits are possible at a dosage that is not subjectively too intoxicating for the patients. 

In order to apply these performance enhancing qualities to products,

The relative contributions of THC, CBD, Other Cannabinoids and Essential Oil Terpenoids to the observed effects, should be cataloged and quantified.

Which terpenes improve vision? Are there terpenes, when inhaled, that can affect visual perception? What is the correct delivery method? Can cannabinoids improve our ability to detect or process illusions? Can terpenes change our perception of color intensity? Do terpenes affect any enzymes associated with the functions of the eye? What terpenes should I use in my product?

Feel free to Contact Us

Humulene Terpene Profile

Common Cannabis Terpene

Humulene, along with Caryophyllene and Limonene, is one of the most common cannabis terpenes. Humulene shares another connection with caryophyllene: Both are present in the hops found in beer. 

Humulene Origin 

The therapeutic usage of the humulene terpene traces back to ancient Chinese apothecaries that employed high dosages of the terpene in their Remedies. Even today, Chinese ginseng, which contains humulene, is used for many purposes, notably as an energy booster and a natural antibiotic. 

Humulene source

Was first found in the Essential Oils of humulus lupulus (or common hops). Chances are you have had a sensory encounter with the humulene terpene. It is present in plants such as marsh elders, tobacco and cannabis. Many herbs and spices contain humulene, including sage, ginseng, and coriander.

Humulene Scent and Flavor 

Humulene scent is earthy, wood-like and pungent aroma.

It provides a flavorful bite that is popular in Asian cuisine. Similarly, humulene is credited for giving beer its bitter flavor, thanks to the terpene’s abundance in hops.

Therapeutic Effects of Humulene

Scientific studies have investigated whether humulene effects include anti-inflammatory, antitumor, and other medical benefits. Results have been encouraging, but further research is needed to establish a solid relationship between humulene and improved health outcomes.

Anti-inflammatory

Many terpenes present in cannabis, have shown promise in treating inflammatory conditions. Humulene is among the terpenes that may exhibit anti-inflammatory action.

This terpene might represent an important tool for the management and treatment of inflammatory diseases.

The effectiveness of oral humulene was further confirmed by a study which demonstrated that humulene is absorbed when it is Applied Topically

Humulene possesses both topical and systemic anti-inflammatory properties and is helpful in treating Arthritis, Bursitis, Fibromyalgia, and other conditions that benefit from reducing inflammation.

Humulene could be effective when administered orally or inhaled as an aerosol to combat allergies.

Anti-tumor

Humulene has been tested for its efficacy in fighting several types of cancerous cells. A Study found that the humulene in balsam fir oil effectively kills tumor cells by turning off their antioxidant processes.

Weight-loss 

As an appetite suppressant, humulene works alongside other Chemicals in Cannabis to promote weight loss.

Anti-Bacterial 

Humulene is known for its notable anti-bacterial properties, such as those against the bacteria Staphylococcus aureus when used in appropriate quantities.

A prominent terpene in cannabis, humulene is distinctive for its association with the hops in beer and has shown potential in treating allergies, tumors, and particularly inflammation. This terpene is notably lacking in the CB2 Receptor, further research has to be conducted to better understand the mechanisms correlated to humulene’s effects.

Chemical Properties 

Formula: C15H24

Molar mass: 204.35 g/mol

Density: 886 kg/m³

Boiling point: 106 °C

Chemical Structure

Shipping Terpenes

You should be aware that shipping research materials, such as terpenes, within the United States and abroad has become a highly regulated process.

Storage 

The facility requirements for storing terpenes are no different from storing most other common chemicals. Proper care should be exercised and concern should be given to container compatibility, shelf life, and safety.

Shelf Life & Storage Conditions

Under ideal conditions, the shelf life of terpenes is 18 months to two years. Improper storage and handling can lead to reduced shelf life.

Store in a well ventilated area with proper sprinkler/fire deterrent system. Storage temperature should not exceed the flash point (110°F/43°C) for extended periods of time. Keep container closed when not in use. Air should be excluded from partially filled containers by displacing with nitrogen or carbon dioxide. Do not cut, drill, grind, or weld on or near this container; residual vapors may ignite.

The freezing point of terpene formulations vary around -96° C (-142° F). Exposure to extreme low temperatures should not affect the formulation or product quality; however at -78°C (-108°F) d-Limonene will become difficult to pump. It should also be noted that water – which is naturally present in trace amounts – might be extracted from the formulation if exposed to temperatures below 0° C (32° F). Freezing temperatures will not affect the integrity of the product but water may collect at the bottom of the drum or storage tank. If the drum is un-lined, the water may cause rust. This is rarely a storage issue in the phenolic-lined drums used by most companies.

Safety

It is recommended that all local storage safety precautions be followed. In many states, terpenes are not considered a hazardous material when stored in a warehouse in drums. When shipped by air or ocean, terpenes are considered a hazardous material and must be labeled accordingly. If terpenes are stored in drums marked with hazardous labels, local regulatory agencies may consider them hazardous. 

Shipping

International legal landscape for cannabis derived terpenes is questionable at best. Botanically derived terpenes are shipped internationally, that being said some countries have notorious bureaucracy. Both export and import documentation needs to be attached including handling instructions, permissions and safety sheets. It is mandatory to purchase insurance on the package. For any issues feel free to Contact Us.

Handling 

Always wear the appropriate personal protective equipment when handling essential oils, especially safety glasses and gloves. The best material for gloves, aprons, and goggles specific to handling terpenes are nitrile , although Viton and polyethylene film will also work.

When transferring from drums or tankers into smaller containers, braided PVC tubing will hold up for a while, but will eventually become rigid. The newer materials using halogenated polymers or fluoromers will work best for this use. Braided PVC or Tygon tubing will hold up for a while.

For clean-up purposes when a NIOSH filter is needed, always use an organic cartridge.

Chemical Companies recommend the use of grounding clamps whenever transferring liquids.

Shipping Regulations

International shipping regulations vary widely from country to country. If appropriate paperwork is not received by the customs official in the destination country, terpenes will not be allowed entrance.

Cannabis Online

Advertising

It has been surveyed repeatedly, most are in favor of cannabis and a majority of the population has participated in cannabis use.

Governments all over the world are making regulations more tolerable. Many are insisting on legalization.

During the 2020 COVID_19 stay at home orders and self isolation cannabis dispensaries are considered essential. Many cannabis companies are trying to adjust and provide their product or service with minimum contact.

Unfortunately, the big tech companies are not cooperating. 

Google Policy 

Google wants to help keep people safe both online and offline, so they don’t allow the promotion of some products or services that cause damage, harm, or injury.

The following is not allowed:

Ads for substances that alter mental state for the purpose of recreation 

or otherwise induce “highs”

Dangerous products or services

The content can still be shared but organic reach is not guaranteed. 

Facebook Policy 

  Facebook doesn’t allow ads that promote the sale or use of illegal, prescription, or recreational drugs. 

Example includes ads that contain Cannabis Use.

Content can still be shared to Facebook and other social media because the content is editorial and not strictly promotional.

Taboola Policy 

Prohibited Content, Products, and Services

Offensive, Threatening or Inappropriate Content

You must not promote anything that has a significant risk of being dangerous.

False Promises, Scams or Illegal Activity

Cannabis advertising is strictly forbidden

You must not promote anything that promotes illegal activity or has a significant risk of being illegal.

Ads for recreational drugs such as marijuana and paraphernalia marketed to facilitate use of recreational drugs such as pipes, bongs, and rolling papers

Outbrain Policy

Controlled or Illegal Substances

Ads must not promote the sale or use of illegal, prescription, or recreational drugs.

Tobacco-related products such as e-cigarettes, cigars, vaporizers, hookahs

  • Promotion of hemp-based CBD (cannabidiol) products with little to no THC is acceptable in countries where CBD is legal
  • Promotion of investments or stocks relating to marijuana is acceptable

Since all industries are required to adapt to new circumstances. Many have to adapt their policies also. The cannabis industry, though deemed essential, seems to be coping with difficulties other industries do not. The main platforms still do not accept cannabis and adjacent ads

Out of date policies make reaching out to customers an expensive game of cat and mouse. The technological and fiscal disadvantages are vast. Legitimate cannabis companies are driven to less than ideal alternatives. The Media Buying, SEO webs, influencer tactics and alternative platforms. Small platforms are often less efficient competitive advertising trying to capitalize from Big Tech’s gaps. The platforms that do accept cannabis and adjacent ads are simply not big enough for companies trying to scale.

Finding a bank that’s willing to back your business is even harder. While the US Department of Justice largely stays out of the way of cannabis-focused companies that abide by state laws, few banks and credit unions open accounts for those entrepreneurs.

We have allowed large corporations to control the voice and activity of our society. It seems we have not yet learned from our mistakes. Zoom is the next technology consuming server space online. Overnight everyone seems to conform without fully understanding their privacy rights encryption methods or stance concerning major issues. Even legislators are rushing to use the technology with disregard for their voters and the constitution.

In order to survive in the socially distanced digital world web presence and reach are vital. It is important to avoid antitrust behavior not just for the cannabis industry.