Terpene Overview

Terpene Discovery 

In 1887, German chemist Otto Wallach determined the structures of several terpenes and discovered that all of them were composed of two or more five-carbon units of isoprene

Terpenes Outlined

Terpenes are a large class of plant secondary products with a major role in defense against plant-feeding insects and herbivores. However, not all terpenoids act as secondary products. Many have important roles in primary processes, such as photosynthesis, stability of cell membranes, signaling, and as source compounds for several plant hormones.

Terpene Formation 

All terpenes are formed by condensation of two or more isoprene units and are classified on the basis of the number of isoprene units they contain.Some terpenes are being formed from linear arrangements of isoprene units followed by various cyclizations and rearrangements of the carbon skeleton.

Terpenes in Food 

Terpenes aren’t just something you buy as an extract or enjoy infused into your favorite products. These naturally occurring compounds are present in a number of foods we eat on a regular basis.

Terpenes are there, in abundance, quietly coloring our experiences and providing pleasurable moments.

Terpenes in Cannabis 

The most abundant terpenes in cannabis are Pinene,Linalool,Caryophyllene,Myrcene, Limonene and Humulene. These are specific to strain genetics and alter the cannabinoid’s effect within the Endocannabinoid System. Different stains can feel different due to the terpene concentrations and mechanisms.

Terpenes Scent

Terpenes are the primary components of essential oils — aromatics. They get incorporated into perfumes, cosmetics, scented candles and many more products. Unfortunately Terpenes oxidize easily due to autoxidation on air exposure.Freeze drying plant material can prolong shelf life and improve potency. 

Terpenes Sources

There’s no recognizable difference, for example, between isolated caryophyllene from black pepper and from cannabis. However, there is a difference between the other compounds that interact in cannabis compared with other plants. This Synergistic effect is known as the Entourage Effect. Since Cannabis is not legal internatio

nally many producers prefer Botanically Derived Terpenes.

Terpenes in Topicals and Creams

One way that topical cannabis producers are making their product attractive to new audiences is by infusing them with pure terpenes that imitate popular genetic strains. Not only does this enhance the literal medicinal value of topical cannabis products, it also enhances their scent, turning them into an aromatherapy product as well as a transdermal ones. Other producers use these terpenes simply for their respective chemical properties.

Terpenes Enhance Skin Penetration 

Certain terpenes are excellent carriers for the delivery of a wide range of medications.

Terpenes have been incorporated as adjuvants in the form of Penetration Enhancers or absorption promoters for improved drug delivery from various dosage forms including solutions, gels, and transdermal therapeutic systems.

Versatile Terpenes

The same terpenes that have proven themself so useful for human use have an adverse effect on invertebrates. Terpenes can be used as an organic non lethal pest repellent. Terpenes offer a promising alternative to conventional synthetic pesticides. 

Terpene Healing Properties

Each terpene has particular chemical properties and recommended dosage specific to application and delivery method. Chemical modifications of terpenes are being developed by pharmaceutical companies accompanied with peer reviewed research.

  • Anti-inflammatory
  • Antibacterial
  • Anti-microbial
  • Anti-depressant
  • Relaxant and sedating effects, 
  • Inhibits cancer growth
  • Healing of the mucous cells
  • Aids digestion 
  • Aid immune system
  • Suppresses muscle spasm

Cannabis and Social-Distancing

It doesn’t seem likely that the quarantine spurred by the Coronavirus outbreak will end for most of us very soon. 

While businesses deemed essential and allowed to stay open getting weed right now might be difficult.

The head of the United Nations narcotics enforcement agency questioned whether international drug control conventions are out of date, stating “We have some fundamental issues around the conventions”. Unfortunately the Covid-19 hit early 2020 before proper correction to legislation had time to penetrate.

Many normative working people have come to rely on a steady supply of cannabis through various channels. 

Many of these individuals are making a forced lifestyle change. Some are afraid of the epidemic,others care for their environment while some are simply scared of law enforcement during these uncertain and unregulated times. 

While working through digital channels is the natural transition, many are afraid for their privacy right. There are many examples of antitrust and anticompetitive practices prior to the Corona Outbreak. These behaviours strengthen with the increased use of digital platforms. In the State of Israel the government announced surveillance of personal online activities and locations. 

If the countries representing the people do not value privacy rights, how can you expect corporations who are often bigger and more influential than the government to comply.

Since cannabis is still not legal internationally many are too afraid to get this essential crop.

Debates are currently being held internationally regarding social distancing steps, steady food supplies and monetary compensations. It is surprising that during such a crucial time, these professionals don’t take mental health into consideration.

Despite claiming to work only through legal channels, many products roll into unofficial channels. Many of the regulated cannabis companies are feeling a slump.

We would like to ask our international audience (Personal and Commercial) how they restock and how long their supply would last.  

Cannabis for Parkinson’s

Endocannabinoid System

Modulates a huge range of physiological functions, including mood, cognition, motor control, feeding behavior, and pain. The System is primarily located in the basal ganglia and has been found involved in several movement disorders, including Parkinson’s disease 

Activating Cannabis Receptors could help treat lack of dopamine-induced Dyskinesia. 

The compounds working within the endocannabinoid system can affect dopamine levels.

Cannabis could help reduce patients’s symptoms.

Parkinson’s Disorder

Parkinson’s disease is characterized by a loss of dopaminergic neurons in the midbrain. It’s a disease where the central nervous system suffers a long-term progressive deterioration. This affects movement, making walking difficult, as well as causing shaking in the limbs and stiff painful muscles. Some patients suffer difficulty sleeping and may have emotional problems.


Caused from a lack of dopamine within the brain, specifically, the dopamine receptor.

Dopamine cannot penetrate the blood-brain membrane. Levodopa enters through the membrane and creates dopamine within the brain reducing dyskinesia. 

The Cannabinoid System is partially responsible for controlling the dopamine levels. Clinical and animal model data support the view that modulation of cannabinoid function may exert an antidyskinetic effect.

Levodopa (L-DOPA)

An amino acid precursor of dopamine with antiparkinsonian properties. Levodopa is a is converted to dopamine by DOPA decarboxylase and can cross the blood-brain barrier. When in the brain, levodopa is decarboxylated to dopamine and stimulates the dopaminergic receptors, thereby compensating for the depleted supply of endogenous dopamine seen in Parkinson’s disease. The mechanism assures adequate concentrations of levodopa reach the central nervous system.

Levodopa reduces brain metabolism in patients with Parkinson’s disease, and reduces Parkinson’s related pattern activity, correlating with clinical improvement. 


A recent hypothesis stipulates that the drop of dopamine levels within the brain is caused by an autoimmune process. 

As a fundamental regulator of inflammation. It has been shown that dopaminergic signalling pathways are key players promoting homeostasis between the central nervous system and the immune system.

The entire process is manipulated by the endocannabinoid system. Further Studies of various mechanisms can help us advance medicine significantly.

Chemical Properties 

Formula: C8H11NO2

Molar mass: 153.18 g/mol

Density: 1.26 g/cm³

Boiling point: 128 °C

Chemical Structure

Cannabis Extraction

There are many useful substances, such as Terpenes and Cannabinaoids. As the demand for cannabis products increases and diversifies, extracting these substances becomes crucial for recreational and Medical Use. In order to isolate the active materials in cannabis there are two main ways of extraction.

A producer will require access to a cannabis oil extraction machine.

It’s worth noting that there are several types of these machines on the market. So care needs to be taken when making a selection. They vary in size,price,processing speed,user-friendliness and durability.

CO2 Extraction

The supercritical(subcritical) CO2 method uses carbon dioxide under pressure and ambient temperature to isolate, preserve and maintain the purity of the oil. CO2 extraction doesn’t like water in the source material so drying the cannabis properly beforehand is essential. Some view this method as leading the extraction industry. When done right the product is safe , potent and free of chlorophyll. The method achieves self-ready oil straight from the extractor with little effort.

CO2 Extraction Procedure

To perform an extraction, the plant material must be ground and placed into an extraction vessel. CO2 gas undergoes high temperature and pressure. A pump then forces supercritical CO2 into the extraction vessel where it meets the plant and breaks the trichomes allowing it to dissolve part of the plant material.

Ethanol Extraction 

Food grade ethanol can be used to create cannabis oil appropriate for vape pen cartridges and other products, however, this extraction method destroys some beneficial compounds including terpenes. These have health benefits that are favored by product makers.Over extraction of cannabis can also occur

Ethanol Extraction Procedure 

The cannabis plant material is placed in contact with the alcohol specifically ethanol and allowed to soak together thoroughly. The soak time should be adequate to enable the squeezing effect of the ethanol to withdraw the cannabis oil. Afterward, you are free to remove the residual plant materials through sieving. You may need to filter the resulting liquid effectively. The alcohol component of the fluid is eliminated by the evaporation process, leaving behind the pure cannabis oil.

It is important to realize that cannabis is not the only Source of these valuable compounds.

Future Extraction 

Much of the intellectual property in the cannabis world has to do with tweaking and automating extraction methods.
There are many ways to extract your Essential Terpenes and oils from plants. It is up to each producer to choose a method based on their desired product. We believe that CO2 is the way to go for scale.

New Cannabis Regulations

Many Americans have already demonstrated their belief that Herbal Relief is essential in a crisis and under non-threatening circumstances. To date, no American president has supported the decriminalization of cannabis.

The New York Department of Health has deemed medical cannabis Dispensaries Essential. Nevada and Colorado have allowed dispensaries to remain open.

It’s not just a recreational activity. It is something that helps keep people calm. It helps with anxiety; it helps with sleep; it helps with pain. Research even suggests Further Applications that when reviewed have vast implications.Cannabis is over-the-counter preventative medicine.

Since cannabis is essential, digital cannabis platforms are essential. Allowing Cannabis Companies to grow and scale as other businesses will allow these companies to develop proper online delivery platforms. Allowing for packages to be shipped or posted will help dispensaries deliver further distances more efficiently.

Requiring patients to get approval from health care providers in person is a thing of the past. There are many changes going on, it is up to us as a community to make sure cannabis legalization and deregulation be one of them.

As these cannabis startups they should qualify for credit to empower growth. Current regulation forces companies to sell equity privately to investors with vision.

In addition many of the largest digital advertising platforms have strict regulations against promoting cannabis related products. The additional cost of alternative advertising methods hinder growth.

For now cannabis dispensaries are being deemed as “essential businesses,” as they are allowed to remain open. As further steps are being taken, they may fall back in priority. 

Did You Know?

  •  Before the 20th century, cannabis plants in the U.S. were relatively unregulated, and marijuana was a common ingredient in medicines.
  • THC stimulates specific cannabinoid receptors that increase the release of dopamine, a neurotransmitter related to feelings of pleasure.
  • The first thing ever e-commerce transaction was a bag of cannabis around 1971. Rumor has it Stanford students bought it from MIT students. 

Alkaloids Therapeutics

Phenolics, Terpenes and Alkaloid

Plants, such as cannabis, produce an amazing variety of organic compounds over and above their everyday components and metabolites. The secondary compounds are derived from everyday components, but are not central to metabolism. An example of this is THC.

 In addition to the phenolics and Terpenoids. Particularly important and diverse are the alkaloids which are nitrogen containing cyclic compounds. This class includes many useful chemicals, such as: caffeine, nicotine, atropine and quinine.


Quinine, traditionally used as a muscle relaxant is found in bark of Cinchona trees.

Quinine has been used in unextracted form by Europeans since at least the 17th century.  It was first used to treat malaria during the 1940s.

Natural product-derived compounds have played a major role in Medical Treatment discovery.

Chloroquine is a more active semi-synthetic derivative of quinine. Hydroxychloroquine, the less toxic version, is an appealing option mainly because it’s an off-the-shelf drug. Companies know how to make it, there are low-cost generic versions available, and the drug has already been tested and approved for use against malaria and to treat inflammation in conditions like arthritis.

The drug has recently been used to treat corona-virus patients in China and in France, where some researchers said it showed Great Promise, though more trials would determine if it really works safely.

Invitro research shows hydroxychloroquine slowdown of infection from Covid-19. These results are preliminary.

Interaction with Cannabis

Delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol (Delta9-THC) enhances quinine palatability and reduces the rejection of intra-oral delivery of quinine

Quinine increases some side effects of cannabis, such as drowsiness suggesting .

That it’s activity within the endocannabinoid system adheres to the principles of the Entourage Effect and helps to regulate the CB1 receptor.

Cannabis is Essential

There is much to learn from nature. Cannabis dispensaries are being deemed as “essential businesses,” as they are allowed to remain open under state emergency orders. Regulators world-wide can note.

If Quinine dose end up curing Covid-19 it will serve as an example of how nature is very important for future medicine.

Chemical Properties 

Formula: C20H24N2O2

Molar mass: 324.42 g/mol

Density: 120 kg/m³

Boiling point: 495 °C

Chemical Structure

Biotechnology in the Cannabis World

As the Cannabis Market grows, biotechnology is taking an increasingly important place in that market.

From research-driven improved medical delivery systems to a more enjoyable recreational experience.

Genetic Engineering 

A manipulation of the genetic code (genome), it can be done to either plants or animals. Since 1970 various cannabis genetic experiments have yielded potent effect based strain.

Manipulating individual genes and specific parts of the plant DNA, cannabis could be genetically modified in a way which would selectively favor production of certain cannabinoid compounds

Genetically engineer a cannabis strain that yields ultra high levels of the whole spectrum of cannabinoid chemicals. The aim will be to extract and isolate them into individual Cannabinoids on an industrial scale

Unlock the Medical Potential of Cannabis 

Many are aiming to patent specific cannabis cultivar and aim to improve phenotypic traits and claim intellectual property for commercial purposes. There are two ways in which it can be achieved, the fist is genetic hybridization and the second is gene manipulation.

Genetic Hybridization

Process of interbreeding individuals from genetically distinct populations to produce a hybrid. A genetic hybrid would therefore carry two different alleles of the same gene.

Gene Manipulation

Often referred to as genetic engineering, it is a general term for any method which manipulates the genetic material. Gene manipulation includes gene splicing, use of recombinant DNA, CRISPR  and PCR

Genetic Diversity 

Since favorable traits are encouraged the loss of genetic diversity can threaten genetic diversity leaving cannabis vulnerable to Environmental Changes, such as weather, bacterial and viral infections. The more diverse cultivars there are, the more resistance cannabis becomes.

Environmental Impact 

Plant populations that possess variations of alleles are suited for the changing environment. Those plants are more likely to survive to produce offspring bearing that allele.

Without genetic diversity cannabis is more likely to perish.

By studying cannabis genetics, we are not only improving the weed genetics, we can also protect it for future use. In order to do that clear road-map of development needs to be cataloged.


The need for an accessible Database can help geneticists have a vision and improve cannabis’s favorable traits while accumulating data that can help predict trends and insure the plant’s survival.
Using rapidly developing yet common techniques can give Cannabis Startups an edge over the competition if stand art best practices are used. As more research is being adopted to the cannabis market, it is important to Share the Knowledge rather than profit from it.

Terpenes for Vaccines

In spite of widespread agreement regarding the desirability of oral vaccination, the approach has met with considerable resistance. This seems to be due to doubts regarding the efficacy of orally administered vaccines. Concerns over immune response mounted after oral vaccination is harsher than that achieved by injection. In reality, attempts to compare efficacy of injected and oral vaccines directly are not entirely valid, as the two routes initiate immunity in different parts of the body, and engender types of immunity different in qualitative rather than simply quantitative terms. 

There is a general perception that mucosal immune responses are short‐lived. This may, in part, be the result of observations on systemic immunity generated after Oral Administration, where cells enter via gut to the bloodstream and focus locally. 

Another concern is that pre‐existing immunity to the viral carrier may impair their ability to function as vaccines.Research shows a correlation between increased volatile terpene content and the decline of defense responses produced by the T-cells. Ingested cannabis can therefore be used to improve oral administration of vaccines.

Terpenes may also have potential as an oral vaccine carrier. This particularly makes sense bearing in mind that oils have been used as the basis for parenteral adjuvant formulations for decades, at least in experimental studies, in the form of Freund’s complete and incomplete adjuvants, where mineral oil is taken up by phagocytic cells, and appears to have a stimulating effect in its own right. A number of oil‐containing injectable vaccines are currently on the market, but in these formulations the antigen is located outside the oil droplets. For formulations administered orally, where the antigen needs to be protected from digestive enzymes and carried by the droplets. 

Terpenes interact with the Endocannabinoid System and help control our immunity. Harnessing the knowledge available is enough to design many new Terpene Applications

Fighting Viral and Bacterial Infections

As is so often the case the best offense is a good defence. Preventive medicine cut cost and saves lives. Cannabis has opened up many practicle applications for improving clinical conditions. Treatments vary in competition delivery method and availability depending on application.

Killing Harmful Bacteria

Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is an antibiotic resistant form of bacteria.
Scientists discovered that CBG, which has no psychoactive properties, is highly effective at eliminating MRSA microbes and “persister” cells that are responsible for repeat infections.

Fighting Viral Infection

The mode of antiviral activity has been determined. beta-Pinenene and Limonene reduced viral infectivity of various strains.  Monoterpenes revealed only moderate antiviral effects. The results show that treating cells prior infection or immidiately after entry of virus into cells can prevent infection by direct interaction with free virus particles.
The resaech suggest that monoterpenes exhibit synergetic activity in the early phase of viral multiplication and might be used as potential antiviral agents.

Increasing Immune Response

The Endocannabinoid system is partially responsible for regulating the immune response Cannabinoids Terpenes and Flavonoids can increase our immune functions and prevent viral and bacterial infections.

Some terpenes stimulate the innate immune system by enhancing our phagocyte response to pathogens.

Reducing Symptoms

Cannabis can act as a bronchodilator and open the airways of the lungs by relaxing bronchial muscles. fighting bronchial irritation with full spectrum oil including alpha-pinene, a known bronchodilator, could support easier breathing and reduce theorasic distress.

Delivery Methods

While production and Scalability are the main influencers of the market delivery method is also being debated. It is important to follow a good hyginic path of production unhynered by pathogens all the way down to the consumer or patient. Some current habits and methods are not best suited for homoginizing treatment and keeping infection at Bay. It is up to practitioners and consumers to be fully informed.