Terpenes In Nature

What are Terpenes 

Lately there is much hype about terpenes. But few really understand what they are and where they are found. Nature is full of terpenes. 

Some natural terpenes are well known, for example Linalool is found in lavender. Linalool is widely known for the stress-relieving, anti-anxiety, and anti-depressant effects. Many relate these characteristics to the flower, but it is the terpene’s effect.

 Terpene Origin 

So where do these terpenes come from? Plants produce various types of metabolites. Terpenoids are a product of the chloroplast’s secondary metabolism. Terpenes and cannabinoids are produced within the trichome cells through biosynthesis. Terpenes act like the plant’s “hormones”. Plants also use these terpenes to protect them against fungus and bacteria. Terpenes also attract pollinating insects. 

Terpene Properties 

Terpenoids are biomolecules made up of multiple isoprenes (Hydrocarbons). These terpenoids can be linear, cyclical, or both. When a terpenoids is modified with a functional group it is referred to as terpenes. Terpenes are categorized by size. C5H8 Monoterpene (C5H8)2 Sesquiterpene (C5H8)3 Diterpene (C5H8)4 Sesterterpene (C5H8)5 Teterpenes, and so on.

Each terpene behaves differently based on the category and functional group. Many Have pharmacological And biological activities. These terpenes work on our endocannabinoid system In a process called the Entourage Effect.


Terpenes have been around as long as plants existed,subsequently, they have been exploited by humans. We have unknowingly used terpenes throughout history. There is even evidence that ancient Egyptians enjoying terpenes. Terpenes help to regulate cannabinoids within the endocannabinoid system.  

Applying Terpenes

Making use of terpenes has proven beneficial. Before fully Harnessing the power of terpenes the dots need to be connected in terms of pharmacology.

Having a better understanding of terpenes already improved our lives. As our understanding increases, there is no doubt these natural terpenes will assist more fields.

Linalool Outlined


Linalool is a monoterpene, it has a role as a plant metabolite and is produced by an assortment of plants. Historically used in traditional medicine for its sedative and anti-epileptic properties, many new applications have been found.


Linalool doesn’t stick around in your body for long and doesn’t accumulateI as it undergoes metabolic modifications including oxygenation and acetylation, which may affect the modulatory efficacy of the generated linalool derivatives.


There are many Linalool applications.

It is used as a scent in the majority of perfumed hygiene products. its applications include the formulation of,cosmetics, skin care, hair care, medical care and home care products for its scent and absorption properties.

Anti-Inflammatory and Pain Reducer

Linalool is useful for dampening responses to injury or sickness.

Inflammatory response can be driven by cytokine production. Cytokine regulate function and expression of adenosine. Linalool can increase the adenosine levels in the body, pain-relieving  properties to its elevation of adenosine levels, an inhibitory brain chemical that is notably blocked by caffeine.


Linalool can improve sleep and increase energy. 

Adenosine, a chemical that relaxes the mind and serves as a sedative. Inhaled linalool seems to induce sedation without significant impairment in motor abilities


Linalool is known as a powerful anticonvulsant agent.

The anticonvulsant effects of Linalool can be attributed to both an inhibition of potassium-stimulation and antagonism of NMDA and GABA receptors. gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA)are involved in muscle contraction.

Research suggests mostly carbon 8 oxygenated Linalool metabolites positively affect GABAergic currents.

Immune Response

Effects of Linalool on immune functions are currently being studied.

Linalool inhalation has been shown to act as an anxiolytic and may boost immune system performance. A healthier immune system better prepared to fight infection and disease Some research suggests that Linalool can inhibit the development of cancerous tumors and ease the symptoms of a variety of autoimmune disorders. 


Linalool can deter mosquitos.

Linalool interacts with an odorant receptor effectively disorienting the mosquito. It is found that a formulation containing monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes is the most effective repellent. 

Anti-Microbial Modulator

Linalool may improve anti-microbial properties.

Chemical analysis revealed that linalool from cumin seed oil were the bioactive compounds responsible for both synergistic antibacterial and antioxidant activities. 

Cardiovascular System

Linalool helps to reduce blood pressure.

Linalool reduces blood pressure due to a direct effect on the vascular smooth muscle leading to vasodilation. Hypotensive actions caused by direct vasodilation coupled with decrease of heart rate.


Disease caused by the buildup of brain plaques and cellular tangles. Linalool and other terpenes are being investigated for their role in reducing these symptoms and restoring brain function 


Due to the oxidation hazard the correct storage and handling of terpenes is very important. Due to the cost, weight, and fragility, glass or ceramic containers are rarely used for packaging, however, the Linalool will have no effect on glass or ceramic packaging. Most suppliers use rust-free stainless steel storage. Other specialized methods of removing oxygen is suggested to reduce oxidation.

Chemical Properties 

Formula: C10H18O

Molar mass: 154.25 g/mol

Density: 858 kg/m³

Boiling point: 198 °C

Chemical Structure

Terpenes and Transdermal Absorption

Terpenes have the potential for enhancing percutaneous dermal absorption of therapeutic proteins which cannot be delivered orally due to their unique pharmacokinetic characteristics and stability issues. 

Transdermal Absorption

Over the years, transdermal delivery has become one of the favored routes of delivering therapeutics. It offers several advantages over conventional delivery methods.

Transdermal delivery bypasses the first-pass effect sustains release of drugs over a period of time, and offers better patient compliance.

Dermal Products 

Transdermal patches containing hormones are being studied by scientists all over the world to exploit these advantages. Transdermal patch containing gestodene and ethinylestradiol is a convenient non-oral contraceptive which showed sustained release. 

Many cosmetic products available in the market contain various proteins, such as keratin and kinetin as the active ingredient.

Skin Barrier 

Due to the barrier functionality of top most layer of the skin, dermal delivery of protein/peptide based therapeutics has been problematic.The stratum corneum is made up of dead cells which mostly consisted of lipids and protein keratin. These cells have the dual ability to absorb water and avoid loss of moisture. A drug has to pass through the continuous layer of intracellular lipids and intercellular proteins to reach the systemic circulation via the skin. 

Permeation Enhancers

Several methods have been used to overcome the barrier property of skin to accelerate the flow of proteins/peptides across the skin.

One technique used to increase permeability through the skin is the use of chemical penetration enhancers. The method involves the reversible and transient perturbation of barrier integrity of stratum corneum by using terpenes 

Various terpenes are used to increase the permeability of drugs through the skin barrier into the blood circulation. These compounds are known as terpene penetration enhancers.

Generally, the smaller terpenes are found to be more active permeation enhancers and are reported to disrupt stratum corneum bilayer lipids. 

relatively large, long chain sesquiterpene such as nerolidol reinforces the bilayers possibly by orienting alongside the stratum corneum 

Hydrocarbon or nonpolar group containing terpenes such as Limonene provide better enhancement for lipophilic drugs than do polar terpenes. 

Conversely, terpenes containing polar groups such as menthol and 1,8-cineole provide better enhancement for hydrophilic drugs. 

Although nonaqueous solvents generally destabilize protein, some with low lipophilicity can have an opposite effect,

Lipophilicity is a desirable property for enhancing percutaneous absorption but may not be a favorable factor for preserving conformational stability and biological activity of a protein. 

Terpene Enhancement 

The percutaneous enhancement capacity of terpenes can be related to their structure and nature of permeation. Generally, terpenes with relatively greater lipophilicity provide better enhancement for lipophilic permeants while those with lower lipophilicity for hydrophilic permeants.

Terpene Data

There is limited data on terpene effect on stability and biological activity of proteins which must be understood to make delivery systems efficient and successful. 

Terpene Research

By researching the effects of nontoxic terpene-based skin penetration enhancers, such as fenchone, carveol, menthol, cymene, terpineol, limonene, eugenol, carvone, farnesol, geraniol, and verbenone, on the conformational stability we can have an understanding of the structural characteristics of terpenes optimal for use in a transdermal formulation of protein.

An Overview of the Main Cannabinoids

All molecules in nature are heavily affected by their surroundings and are in a continuous state of chemical equilibrium. Due to this equilibrium a large variety of chemicals occur under different conditions and environmental factors. There are many cannabinoids, we will walk you through the basics.

Cannabigerolic Acid (CBGA) is the first cannabinoid formed from a biosynthetic reaction, and is the precursor to all other natural phytocannabinoids.

CBGA is produced by the trichomes and converted to THCA,CBDA and CBCA using enzymes.

Cannabinoids like THCA can decarboxylate to THC with heat because the bond between the THC and acid cannot hold. 

Cannabinoids can react with molecules to form new cannabinoids, such as CBGM (cannabigerol monomethyl ether).

Cannabinoids may fold and interact with themselves to form other cannabinoids. 

Presently, there are 146 natural cannabinoids catalogued. It is true that they all exist under certain conditions with certain isolating methods. 

Though each cannabinoid has the potential for breakthroughs in research, most of them have neither been isolated nor characterized. It is often confusing and needs to be simplified. 

THC (tetrahydrocannabinol)

The most well known and studied cannabinoid. Until recently even studying this compound was highly discouraged and supervised. Discovered by Raphael Mechoulam and Yechiel Gaoni in Israel 1964.

THCA (tetrahydrocannabinolic acid)

THCA will play a pivotal role in cannabis medicine. THCA is found in variable quantities in fresh, undried cannabis, but is progressively decarboxylated to THC with drying. THCA is produced from CBGA by THCA synthase.

CBDA (cannabidiolic acid)

CBDA degrades to CBD over time. CBDA is the predecessor to CBD.  Produced from CBGA by CBDA synthase

CBD (cannabidiol)

It is the second most prevalent of the active ingredients of cannabis. CBD exhibits no effects indicative of any abuse or dependence potential. Obtained by a non-enzymatic decarboxylation of CBDA, which is produced by an enzyme from CBGA 

CBN (cannabinol)

CBN is a non-intoxicating, mildly psychoactive, compound that occurs when THC decarboxylated, this cannabinoid created when THC ages. 

CBG (cannabigerol)

Cannabigerol is the non-acidic form of CBGA, the parent molecule from which other cannabinoids are synthesized. Cannabigerol is a minor constituent of cannabis.

CBC (cannabichromene)

Appears in smaller amountsTHC and CBD. It is not scheduled by the convention on psychotropic substances. It is produced from CBCA under thermodynamic conditions.

CBL (cannabicyclol)

CBL differ mainly in the absence of double bond in the second molecule. recent studies have shown promising conclusions, especially regarding the anti-inflammatory potential and anti-tumor effect of CBL. 

CBV (cannabivarin)

Cannabivarin (CBV), also known as cannabivarol, is a non-psychoactive cannabinoid found in minor amounts in the hemp plant.It has no double bond isomers or stereoisomers.

THCV (tetrahydrocannabivarin)

THCV is a cannabinoid receptor type 1 antagonist and cannabinoid receptor type 2 partial agonist.  Δ8-THCV has also been shown to be a CB1 antagonist.

THCV is a new potential treatment against obesity-associated glucose intolerance

CBDV (cannabidivarin)

CBDV is structurally similar to CBD. Like CBD. CBDV is not intoxicating when isolated.

because of a demonstrated neurochemical pathway for previously-observed anti-epileptic and anti-convulsive action. Phase 2 trial for adult epilepsy are being conducted. CBDV is the non-acidic form of CBDVA,

CBCV (cannabichromevarin)

CBCV typically exists in cannabis strains at low levels. CBCV is related to CBC. CBCV has a similar but shorter chemical structure than CBC. It is a propyl cannabinoid, which means it has a propyl chain in its molecular structure rather than a pentyl chain that branches off once again to include a propyl chain. Formed from when heat is applied to CBDVA. 

CBGV (cannabigerovarin)

These agents are able to interfere with the development of cancerous cells, stopping them and preventing them from growing. Using specific dosage patterns, they can destroy cancer cells on their own. Significantly, these compounds are inexpensive to produce could result in much more cost effective anti-cancer drugs

CBGM (cannabigerol monomethyl ether)

Beyond the molecular structure, no clear difference has been identified between the CBGM and other cannabinoids in the CBG group. 

CBE (cannabielsoin)

Cannabielsoin (CBE) was identified as a novel metabolite of CBD.Promotes prolonged pentobarbital-induced sleep.

CBT (cannabicitran)

CBT is a trace cannabinoid..Discovered by Obata and Ishikawa in1966, and determined in 1976. There are nine known types of CBT. CBT is structurally similar to THC. Its psychoactive activities are unknown, but may mitigate the psychoactive components of THC. 

Below is a diagram indicating the basic Cannabinoid synthesis flow.

Water Soluble Terpenes

Terpene Properties 

Terpenes are oils. While some blend with alcohol and chloroform, they do not mix well with water. As you may already know, water molecules are strongly attracted to other water molecules, so they will instantly and tightly bond to one another. Oil molecules are also attracted to water molecules, but because of the water molecule’s tight bond, the oil molecules are unable to mix with the water molecule. 


To emulsify is to force two immiscible liquids to combine in a suspension causing substances, like terpenes and water, which cannot dissolve in each other to form a uniform, homogenous solution.

There are two main types of emulsions, water in oil and oil in water. An emulsion happens when small droplets of one solution (dispersed solution) are dispersed throughout another (continuous solution)

Although terpenes and water don’t mix, we can break oil down into tiny droplets that can remain suspended in the water. 

The emulsifier coats the terpenes, keeping them separate from each other. When untreated, the droplets will clump together, causing the emulsion to separate. 

Emulsifiers are molecules with a fat-soluble part and a water-soluble part. The emulsifier creates an effective barrier around the terpene droplets. 


Glycosylation happens naturally in the body as it metabolizes different foods. The process of glycosylation transforms naturally lipophilic cannabinoid or terpene molecules into hydrophilic (water-soluble) molecules that can be more readily absorbed into the body.

In this process, a sugar molecule is attached to the terpene. Glycosylation improves the water solubility, but may also enable selective delivery, augment side effects and change bioavailability of the terpene.


Water Soluble Terpenes have many applications. These terpenes can mix with water-based products and can be used in water-based foods, beverages,creams, lotions and perfumes. These same terpenes can represent a new class of terpene pharmaceuticals.


There are many emulsifiers being used today. Some natural examples include casein and lecithin. Safety of emulsifiers is carefully regulated and tested by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration. The FDA does not take into account new developing applications for these emulsifiers. 

Further research has to be conducted on changing metabolic pathways using glycosylation, however the results look promising.  


Regulation is still behind in many fields. Before creating a product make sure you perform the necessary tests on the proper scientific channels, backed by academia. Do not leave it up to the regulator who up until recently, did not even let us conduct research on these life saving compounds.

Carene Terpene Profile


Limonene, Myrcene, Linalool and Pinene are widely recognized terpenes. There are many other terpenes with potential to revolutionize industries, and are known to carry an array of medicinal benefits.

Delta-3-Carene is a terpene which is produced by plants secondary metabolism. Specifically, Carene is a bicyclic monoterpene found in various sources including pine, basil, black pepper and cannabis . 


It occurs as a constituent of turpentine along with pinene, camphene and terpinolene. Like some other Botanically Derived terpenes, Carene is chiral, existing in both alpha and beta rotations; occurring naturally both as the racemate and enantio-enriched forms.


Carene has a sweet and pungent odor, best described as citrusy and earthy aroma with piney undertones. Carene’s pine citrus taste is used across the food and beverage industry to augment savory and sweet tastes.

Dermal Absorption

In cosmetics, 3-carene is used for its dermal absorption properties. Products such as ointments, creams and soaps utilize terpenes to perform their functions.  Transdermal Medicine delivery methods relay on variants or synthetic versions of Carene.

Medical Benefits

3-Carene is beneficial to those suffering from advanced respiratory diseases such as bronchitis. It is known to decrease inflammation and fungal infections. 3-Carene may also show properties that promote bone health. This terpene holds an important role in the overall medicinal potential of cannabis. Oral administration of 3-Carene increases the sleep duration and reduces sleep latency.


Since this terpene is not Water Soluble, but miscible with fats and oils it is used throughout industry. Acting as both a solvent and material for organic synthesis. 


Delivery methods include oral, dermal, inhalation or ingestion . Carene at high doses can cause irritation, but it is fairly quickly metabolized. It is very important to dilute this terpene to appropriate concentrations. The concentrations vary according to the application and delivery methods. 

Chemical Properties 

Formula: C10H16

Molar mass: 136.24 g/mol

Density: 867 kg/m³

Boiling point: 338 °F 170 °C

Chemical Structure

3-Carene Chemical Structure

The future growth of the cannabis industry

The cannabis sector is still figuring out what products will yield its future growth.


Edibles encompasses CBD-infused foods and beverages.

It is unsurprising as edibles have undergone a surge in popularity over the last decade. A growing wave of “recreational” consumers, who are interested in finding ways of ingesting cannabis without smoking. Studies have found that these consumers are typically more conservative than traditional cannabis users, and are likely to gravitate towards CBD products that are presented in familiar formats, such as infused confectionaries or beverages.

In the US, where CBD edibles have been legal and on the shelves for several years. Nevada, California, Colorado and Washington have already demonstrated an appetite for such products. These edibles are increasing popularity with American mainstream .

Experts are already predicting that CBD infused products will be one of the biggest trends to hit the Beverage Market in decades. This new trend is accompanied by rising demand for Water Soluble Terpenes.

Constellation Brands, already owns a third in Canopy Growth for $4 billion. While Molson Coors, teamed up with HEXO Corp to launch a line of CBD-infused beverages. They are are already equipped with the FDA regulation management.

Unfortunately, it’s not all good news, as the market also carries several risk factors which could potentially impede future growth.

One concern to the market is increased regulations. Regulators in the US have been expressing increasing concerns about the labelling, dosage and packaging of edible CBD products.

Another issue is the complex layers of taxation that can apply to such products.. Although this is not currently a critical issue, mismanagement could push consumers away from legal market.


The extracts market is rapidly growing.

The demand for edibles is good for extractors as they provide the formulations needed to produce products.

As we keep researching these cannabinoids, terpenes and flavonoids, the demand for these formulations grow. An increasing adoption of cannabis-based medicine as a treatment option is predicted to increase future growth.

Due to regulations, cannabis companies are operating in the pharmaceutical space have begun focusing their attention to extraction; rather than the traditional cannabis flower.

Patients suffering from numerous chronic diseases such as arthritis, Alzheimer’s, cancer, anxiety, depression, and epilepsy can now receive the appropriate dose according to their condition.

As companies evolve the taste of the consumer also changes. An increasing preference for extracts amongst recreational consumers coupled with technological advancements made vaping a popular delivery method.

Derivative products are popular, as they offer much higher margins than the cannabis plant itself.

Oils and tinctures are currently the largest revenue share for the cannabis market; due to their high availability and low price, followed by terpene isolates used to make oils and tinctures.

The most promising sector is full spectrum CBD (CBD with terpenes). As more people discover the potential of the entourage effect which maximises the therapeutic qualities of cannabis.


Cannabis concentrates are a condensed mass containing THC as its main component, and are commonly known as “dabs”. 

Concentrates are often referred to by many different names, such as; shatter, budder, hash, live resin, and hash oil. Concentrates can be consumed in a variety of ways such as joints, blunts, water pipes or edible products. They are most commonly sold in the form of vaporiser cartridges loaded with cannabis oil and terpenes.

concentrate cartridges could be the next gamechanger for the cannabis market.

The concentrates sector is more than twice the size of the edibles sector. Vape pens and pre-filled oil cartridges accounting for more than double the sales of other forms of cannabis concentrate such as shatter, wax and hash oil.

As regulations soften the popularity of cannabis edibles will inevitably be outpaced by the rise of the cannabis concentrates.

Edibles have begun to capture a greater share of the market, they are outperformed by concentrates..

Typical consumers of cannabis concentrate also differ rather significantly from those who prefer edibles. Data has shown that unlike consumers of edibles; who tended to be older and more conservative, cannabis concentrate users were found to be younger and display less risk aversion behaviours.

With new regulations edibles, topicals, concentrates and extracts will all become legal, which is good news for consumers looking for alternative ways to consume cannabis.

Perceived safety of edible will be a big draw for many new cannabis enthusiasts, as they view the products as being safer than smoking the cannabis flower.


It is important to remember. The cannabis flower, has been at the forefront of the industry.

Edibles, Extracts and Concentrates market get considerably less attention They can still offer a potential to accommodate cannabis investors. 

These sectors are becoming well established, but there are new delivery methods around the corner.

As we navigate the tough regulatory environment, there is no better time to get on the action.

What Is Limonene

Limonene takes its name from the lemon peel, but can be found in various fruits and flowers including cannabis. Its popularity stems from being the top 5 terpenes found in cannabis and has proven valuable in various applications.

Limonene exists in two  isomeric forms, D-Limonene and L-limonene. Both have different ouders and behave differently. Both forms of Limonene are classified as a monoterpenes, and degrade to produce other terpenes such as  carveol, carvone.


D-Limonene has a sweet citrusy cent make it a common edible additive and can be found in many food items .Limonene is common as a dietary supplements known to promote weight loss, prevent cancer and treat bronchitis


L-Limonene has a more piney, lemony, clean, turpentine-like scent. L-Limonene is a popular  ingredient in water-free hand soaps as it cleanses and leave the hands smelling fresh. 

Limonene Uses

Limonene scent characteristics makes it popular in perfumery, cosmetic and scented products 

In manufacturing, limonene is considered an effective, naturally occurring, biodegradable solvent and degreaser. It is 100% natural, environmentally friendly, non-toxic and renewable product . 

Producing Limonene

Manufacturers Extract it from the skin of citrus fruits by two methods: by spinning liquefied citrus rind (centrifugal separation) or by ‘cooking’ the rind (steam distillation). 

Limonene Toxicity

Generally Recognized As Safe (GRAS) by the FDA. D-Limonene can be used safely and effectively in a wide range of products and medications. 
Limonene itself has low toxicity, which is why it is used so widely in food-grade products. When applied to skin may sometimes cause irritation, but otherwise appears to be safe for human use.

Limonene Dermal Absorption

D-limonene can enhance Skin Absorption. It is evident that D-limonene is important factors for promoting the percutaneous absorption of indomethacin. As a possible mechanism for enhancement action of d-limonene may change the barrier structure of the stratum corneum and can help produce effective dermal drug delivery methods for  liniments, lotions, ointments, creams, dusting powders, aerosols, and transdermal patches.

Limonene Mechanism

Limone works on the endocannabinoid system and helps regulate cannabinoid uptake by the receptors CB1 and CB2. It is one of the active terpenes in the Entourage Effect 

Limonene has demonstrated the ability to reduce inflammation. One way limonene reduces inflammation is through the inhibition of angiogenesis. Angiogenesis is the formation of new blood vessels, which is an inherent component of inflammation. Thus, by inhibiting this process, limonene can help to reduce inflammation and also improve wound healing.

Studies have also shown that limonene have anti-cancer effects. Limonene increase the levels of liver enzymes involved in detoxifying carcinogens. The Glutathione S-transferase (GST) is a system which eliminates carcinogens. In addition, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, antinociceptive, antidiabetic, antihyperalgesic and antiviral properties of limonene have been observed.

New research is uncovering how valuable Limonene is. Like limonene, there are many useful terpenes. Studying the various terpenes give us knowledge that we are eager to spread.

Chemical Properties 

Formula: C10H16

Molar mass: 136.24 g/mol

Density: 841 kg/m³

Boiling point: 176 °C

Chemical Structure 

Limonene chemical structure

The use of terpenes in botanical medicine

Botanical Medicine

The use of botanical medicine is not new. Throughout human history we have been using plants as medicine. Terpenes are not a recent invention either, they are the latest adaptation of herbalism.

Herbalisim refers to the study of botany and the use of medicinal plants. Herbalisim originated from our powers of observation. We have been using nature as a source of bio-inspiration. 

Recognizable plants have been around 370 million years. They had a long period to adapt protective mechanisms. Archaeological evidence dates the use of plants in medicine to 60000 years, written evidence dates back to 5000 years. The Eygyption Ebers papyrus covers 700 Plant Derived medicinal compounds. The medication improved but its base is unchanged, deriving medicine from botanical sources. 

The use of these medicines has persisted. According to WHO 80% African, Asian countries presently use herbal medicine/plant extracts. In other countries the use of terpenes is becoming more popular as new evidence point to their benefits.

Herbal remedies are more prevalent in patients with chronic diseases; however, preventive medicine allows users to reap herbal benefits prior to getting sick. The preventative medicine trend is reflected when looking at the terpene market growth in the United States.

As more people find out about the Latest Research, the demand for pure terpene formulation is rising. These natural formulations are the very latest in herbalism. Incorporating ancient principles to improve lives today.  

The terpene industry originated by trying to mimic cannabis stains terpenes in order to enrich CBD and THC to a full spectrum formulation extract with similar bodily effects. In the process, new discoveries were made. These discoveries made the goals more ambitious. 

Today formulations are not made to mimic existing strains, but rather to formulate terpenes that achieve a desired effect. Mood enhancing formulations can treat physiological and psychological disorders. The terpene industry has truly brought herbalism to modern times. 

As long as we as a species stay on this planet, It is unlikely that we will ever stop using plants in order to cure ourselves. The ability to find effective cures makes us unique.